How to Stop Heart Palpitations
Instruct the patient not to miss a dose of the tocolytic medication usually the medication is prescribed for every 4 hours and is to be taken throughout the day and night. Tell her to expect side effects of palpitations, fast heart rate, and restlessness. Teach the patient to notify the doctor and come to the hospital immediately if she experiences any bleeding or contractions. Note that being on tocolytic therapy may mask contractions. Therefore, if she feels any uterine contractions, she may be developing abruptio placentae.
Chest pain is present in 69 of patients with AMI. The pain may be characterized as a constricting or squeezing sensation in the chest. Pain can radiate to the upper abdomen, back, either arm, either shoulder, neck, or jaw. Atypical pain presentations in AMI include pleuritic, sharp or burning chest pain. Dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, palpitations, or syncope may be the only complaints.
Hot flashes typically begin as the sudden sensation of heat centered on the face and upper chest, which rapidly becomes generalized. The sensation of heat lasts from two to four minutes, is often associated with profuse perspiration and occasionally palpitations, and is often followed by chills and shivering. Hot flashes usually occur several times per day.
Hyperthyroidism symptoms include nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, tachycardia, palpitations, atrial fibrillation, heat intolerance, weight loss, diarrhea, menstrual irregularities (hypomenorrhea), increased appetite, and thyroid stare. Check thyroid function tests. Usually TSH is low, andT4 (primary) is high. Exophthalmos and pretibial myxedema are specific for Graves' disease. Treatment begins with antithyroid drugs (propylthiouracil or metliimazole). Most patients eventually require further therapy. Use surgery for patients under 25 or pregnant women and radioactive iodine for patients over 40. For patients 24-40, treatment is controversial, and either approach is acceptable. Propranolol is used for thyroid storm (the patient decompensates, physically and mentally, from very high thyroid hormone levels) and sympto matic tachycardia, palpitations, and arrhythmias.
In this condition, the patient experiences profound misery (beyond the observer's empathy) and feelings of severe guilt because of imaginary misconduct. The drive to act or move is inhibited. In addition, there are disturbances mostly of a somatic nature (insomnia, loss of appetite, constipation, palpitations, loss of libido, impotence, etc.). Although the patient may have suicidal thoughts, psychomotor retardation prevents suicidal impulses from being carried out. In A, endogenous depression is illustrated by the layers of somber colors psychomotor drive, symbolized by a sine oscillation, is strongly reduced.
Because significant cardiovascular disease often accompanies hypothyroidism, the patient is at risk for cardiac complications if the metabolic rate is increased too quickly. Therefore, the patient needs to be monitored for cardiovascular compromise (palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate) during early thyroid therapy. The diet for the hypothyroid patient is generally low in calories, high in fiber, and high in protein. As the metabolic rate rises, the caloric content can be increased. The patient's intolerance to cold may extend to cold foods, making meal planning more difficult.
Symptoms Sudden warm facial flushing and sunburn-like rash, metallic-peppery taste, perioral burning and blistering sensations then urticaria, pruritus, bronchospasm, palpitations, tachycardia, hypotension fewer gastrointestinal symptoms of abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Approximately 10-15 of GA-treated patients report a postinjection systemic reaction that includes flushing, chest tightness, palpitations, dyspnea, tachycardia, and anxiety. Symptoms were generally transient and resolved spontaneously without sequelae. Controlled studies demonstrated that GA does not provoke hematological abnormalities, elevation of hepatic enzymes, flu-like symptoms, depression, or abnormalities of blood pressure.
Untreated, hyperthyroidism is associated with excessive activity, tremor, tachycardia, flushing, palpitations, accelerated linear growth, weight loss, impaired skeletal mineralization, and poor school performance 6, 9-11 . Because Graves' disease, toxic nodules and toxic multinodular goiters only rarely spontaneously resolve within a short period, treatment of hyper-thyroidism is essential. Current treatment options include the use of radioactive iodine, surgery, and antithyroid medications.
Although some patients with pheochromocytoma are asymptomatic, about 50 have a history of experiencing spells that are characterized by the 5 Ps sudden increase in blood pressure, palpitations, pallor, profuse perspiration, and pain (chest pain, headache, and abdominal pain). The spells may last 1 minute to several hours and may occur from several times a day to once every several months. The attacks may also be precipitated by heavy lifting, exercise, or distension of the urinary bladder. Medications, such as opiates, histamine, and corticotropin, can also lead to attacks therefore, take a complete medication history. Ask if the patient has experienced weight loss or constipation because of excessive catecholamine secretion.
Maternal side effects include tachycardia, palpitations, and lowered blood pressure. Myocardial ischemia is rare. Common side effects include chest discomfort (10 percent), shortness of breath (15 percent), palpitations (18 percent), tremor (39 percent) and anxiety. Pulmonary edema is an uncommon maternal complication, occurring in 0.3 percent.
The clinical use of stimulants in narcolepsy has been the object of an American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) Standards of Practice publication. Typically, the patient is started at a low dose, which is then increased progressively to obtain satisfactory results. This final dose varies widely from patient to patient. In adults, methylphenidate and amphetamines at dosages of more than 60 mg day do not significantly improve EDS without the appearance of long-term side effects, including frequent worsening of the nocturnal sleep disruption. The drug is usually administered in three divided doses with a maximum of 20 mg in the morning, 20 mg at lunchtime, and 20 mg at 3 pm - never later. Therefore, short naps are necessary. The combination of pharmacological agents and two short naps provides the best daily response to EDS, with no stimulant drug taken after 3 pm. The slow-release form may provide gradual and delayed response during the daytime. Side effects such as headaches,...
Counter-regulation in acute hypotension due to vasodilators (B). Increased sympathetic drive raises heart rate (reflex tachycardia) and cardiac output and thus helps to elevate blood pressure. Patients experience palpitations. Activation of the renin-angioten-sin-aldosterone (RAA) system serves to increase blood volume, hence cardiac output. Fluid retention leads to an increase in body weight and, possibly, edemas. These counter-regulatory processes are susceptible to pharmacological inhibition (p-blockers, ACE inhibitors, AT1-antagonists, diuretics).
Special Concerns Geriatric clients may be more sensitive to the usual adult dosage of these hormones. Use with extreme caution in the presence of angina pectoris, hypertension, and other CV diseases, renal insufficiency, and ischemic states. Use with caution during lactation. Side Effects Thyroid preparations have cumulative effects, and over-dosage (e.g., symptoms of hyperthy-roidism) may occur. CV Arrhythmias, palpitations, angina, increased HR and pulse pressure, cardiac arrest, aggravation of CHF. GI Cramps, diarrhea, N&V, appetite changes. CNS Headache, nervousness, mental agitation, irritability, insomnia, tremors. Miscellaneous Weight loss, hyper-hidrosis, excessive warmth, irregular menses, heat intolerance, fever, dyspnea, allergic skin reactions (rare). Decreased bone density in pre- and postmenopausal women following long-term use of levothyroxine.
Anemia is a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells) or in the number of red blood cells to below normal levels. Anemia reduces the blood's ability to supply oxygen to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide from the tissues. Anemia can result from excessive bleeding, decreased red blood cell production, or diseases that destroy red blood cells. Symptoms of anemia include paleness, weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations.
Flavor enhancers intensify or modify the flavor of food. They have no taste of their own. They include substances such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and various nucleotides. These substances are present in Japanese seaweed (traditionally used for seasoning), mushrooms, tomatoes, peas, meat, and cheese. They are often used in soups, sauces and oriental food. No known adverse effects of flavor enhancers have been reported, except for the case of MSG. Humans have been described to be sensitive to food to which MSG had been added. The symptoms include numbness, general weakness, and heart palpitations (see also Part 2, Chapter 2).