The results of recent twin studies of mood and anxiety disorder symptoms across the life span suggest some differences in the etiology of these symptoms in childhood versus adulthood. Only a few twin studies hav been conducted with children and adolescents, so we will begin with a review of the more extensive adult findings. In the final section of the chapter, we discuss the potential theoretical implications of discrepancies between the child and adult findings concerning mood and anxiety disorder symptoms in terms of genotype-environment correlation. In this section, we will review univariate findings (concerning the etiology of a single symptom dimension) before discussing multivariate findings (concerning common etiological influences acting on two or more different symptom dimensions) for mood and anxiety disorders.
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