Aggregation bias, ecological bias, ecological fallacy Bias resulting from the analysis of aggregated data, when an association observed between variables at the aggregate level is different from that found at the individual level.
For example, in a given country the number of deaths from severe asthma increased proportionally to the sales of a new anti-asthmatic drug. Before concluding that this drug is associated with an increased risk of death, it would be best to rule out, at the individual level, possibility of a prescription bias, i.e. that the drug was mainly prescribed to very severe asthmatics.
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