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Photographs of Decedent at Death Scene

Usually, an agent from law enforcement will photograph the scene. This should be done prior to disturbing the scene or the deceased. A death investigator may also take photographs (Polaroid's are acceptable) for the forensic pathologist performing the autopsy. Information such as the location of the body and any unique circumstances at the death scene may help the pathologist. It is important to keep in mind the legal implications of the photographs. Will the photographs be able to be subpoenaed Are they considered a part of the official medical examiner's enquiry If a death investigator suspects a violent or suspicious death, law enforcement should be requested to take photographs.

Genetic Considerations

The course of acromegaly is slow, with very gradual changes over 7 to 10 years. Reviewing a patient's old photographs may reveal the progressive changes in facial features. Determine if the patient has had a change in hat, glove, ring, or shoe size because of an overgrowth of the hands and feet. Ask the patient if he or she has had headaches or visual disturbances, which in acromegaly are caused by the growth of the adenoma, which exerts pressure on brain tissue and cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Establish a history of altered sexual function, which may be an indicator of decreased gonadotropin production. Ask about the presence of pain in the hands, feet, and spine, which is probably caused by bone growths also ask about problems with chewing, swallowing, or talking, which may be caused by tongue, jaw, and teeth enlargement. Note the presence of a deepening of the voice, recurrent bronchitis, excessive sweating, heat intolerance, fatigue, and muscle weakness. Check for a...

Preface to the First Edition

The microphotographs were selected from our daily diagnostic material, since they show best the technical variations confronting the clinical pathologist in his daily routine, where effects of specimen transport, differences in tissue fixation, and variations in embedding and staining often compound his diagnostic problems. The various shades of haematoxylin-eosin stains shown by our photographs reflect the differences we have experienced with our material as it comes in daily or is received as referral cases from clinics and institutes. We have not attempted to eliminate the deficiencies of these specimens, since the pathologist using this atlas is entitled to find realistic photographs rather than idealistic ones. We want him to recognize a lesion irrespective of the quality of fixation or intensity of staining.

Evaluation of Eyelid Malpositions

Hering Law Eyelid Muscle

Appropriate documentation of all eyelid malpositions with photographs and formal perimetry showing the relative impact of the eyelid on vision have become mandatory by third party payers prior to approval of any surgical intervention for an eyelid malady. A current refraction should be documented since any change in the height or tone of the eyelid can result in a postoperative change in corneal astigmatism. Finally, the patient's expectations for both visual and cosmetic improvement should be carefully elicited as this may impact the technique of surgical repair selected.

Material and Methods

This study was based on the examination of 140 human hearts from the dissection room, from individuals aged between 64 and 88 years at death, of which 64 were male and 76 female. After routine fixation the arteries and veins of the heart specimens were injected with red and blue gelatin, respectively. Microdissections were performed using a stereomicroscope (C. Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). Photographs were taken with a Nikon AS camera fitted with a Medical Nikkor C Auto lens 1 5.6, f 200, using Kodachome 64 films. All scales in the figures are

Video Camera and CCD Camera

An optional camera is the cooled CCD camera such as the Hamamatsu ORCA-2 dual scan cooled digital camera. This camera is cooled to -45 C by air radiation peltier device. An image processing software package is needed to control the exposure time of the cooled CCD camera. Software packages that control both the microscope and the cameras should be chosen (e.g., Inovision ISEE CM Analytical Imaging System (Raleigh, NC) and Universal Imaging MetaMorph Imaging System (West Chester, PA). The software should include modules for digital image acquisition from the cooled CCD camera, acquisition module for video camera, control module for motorized stage and z-axis focus and data analysis including particle tracking program for automatic tracking of vesicles in real-time. The software should be designed to produce 3-D deconvolution images based on a constrained iterative algorithm.

Otoscopy Facial Nerve

Tympanic Membrane Thinning

Otoscopy constitutes the first phase in the examination of the patient. The initiation of the young otologist begins with this basic step. Colleagues of my generation will recall the long months of training which were necessary to understand and identify something in the depths of a narrow, tortuous, and sensitive external canal, often obstructed by physiologic or pathologic secretions. It was difficult to find good textbook illustrations. There were only drawings and lengthy pages of description not worthy of comparison with the unparalleled iconography of Politzer or Toynbee in the last century Photographs were either absent or when included, were of such mediocer quality, that they were of limited interest. We experienced a feeling of frustration in that era of the electron microscope and of space probes bringing back photos of the earth taken from the moon

Legitimate Pharmaceutical Preparations

The analysis of pharmaceutical preparations in the forensic science laboratory is one of the most straightforward types of analysis. These samples are usually recognizable by their labels which usually include the manufacturers' logo and name. There are some samples that even have the name of the product inscribed on the tablet or capsule. In those instances where the manufacturer's logo is not recognized, the Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) is a readily available source of information which includes photographs and descriptions of the product along with information of the formulation. Another source of this information is the Logo Index for Tablets and Capsules.1 This particular text lists data including inscriptions on most known products including generics. After the tablet or capsule has been tentatively identified in a reference text, it is the responsibility of the forensic chemist to conduct a series of analyses to verify the presence of a controlled substance. This...

Rationale and Techniques of Pinhole Scintigraphy

Scan Normal Ankle

The scan time has been reduced from the previous 30-60 min by optimizing scan parameters and using 99mTc-HDP. It is worth pointed out that old analogue cameras produce far superior pinhole images than digital cameras. Unless critically ill, too old, or too young, patients willingly cooperate, knowing that such

Creativity and Left Hand Preference

We do not know why there is a higher proportion of creative visual artists who are right handed. As I mentioned, studies of brain-damaged people have revealed that damage to the right hemisphere impairs visual-spatial, visual-perceptual, and visual-constructive processes (see Benton & Tranel, 1993, for a review). For example, in a face-matching test, participants are asked to determine if two faces are the same or different. In this test the photographs of the two faces are taken at different angles such that the participant cannot determine if the two pictures are the same or different people by making point-to-point comparisons, but instead, the subject must develop an object-centered or face-centered perceptual representation. Patients with right-hemisphere injury are often impaired on this face-matching test. Patients with right-hemisphere disease are also impaired in a test where they are shown a series of cards with two line segments and are asked to study and recall the...

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptora in Vascular Biology Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

Effect of oxidized EPA on leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules in wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a-deficient mice. Several lines of in vitro and in vivo evidence suggest omega-3 fatty acids may exert their effects at least in part through PPAR-a activation. In the experiments shown here, wild-type or PPAR-a-deficient mice (PPARa- -) were given an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (Veh) alone native EPA, or oxidized EPA (oxEPA), 1 hour prior to injection of a potent inflammatory stimulus (lipolysacharide). Five hours later, the adhesion of leukocytes to the gut microvasculature in anesthetized mice was examined using intravital microscopy. (A) Adherent leukocytes were determined (n 5-7 for each group of mice). *p < 0.03 compared to Veh + LPS (wild-type) and oxidized EPA + LPS (PPAR-a - -). Similar results were seen for leukocyte rolling. (B) Representative photographs of leukocytes interacting with the vessel wall (arrows) in LPS stimulated...

Observe by microscopy and analyze data

To collect DAPI and Cy3 images, use a wide-field epifluorescence microscope equipped with a stable, well-aligned mercury or xenon light source and filter sets specifically matched for the excitation and emission profiles of these fluorophores. In addition, equip the microscope with a fluorescence 63 x magnification objective lens with a high numerical aperture for imaging along with a cooled-CCD digital camera.

Detection and Assignment

Three-dimensional editor for manual assignment of orientations and their normals. Displayed are transversal, sagittal and frontal cuts in the photographs of the Visible Man dataset from different perspectives. Fig. 5.19. Three-dimensional editor for manual assignment of orientations and their normals. Displayed are transversal, sagittal and frontal cuts in the photographs of the Visible Man dataset from different perspectives.

History of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics RCSB Protein Data Bank PDB

Once it was demonstrated that crystals could diffract x-rays and possibly provide information to derive the structure of molecules, early scientific pioneers took the challenge of using this powerful technology to try to uncover the structures of biological molecules. In 1934, Crowfoot and Bernal obtained diffraction photographs from pepsin.1 More than 20 years later, in 1957, Kendrew and Perutz determined the first three-dimensional structure of a protein-myoglobin.2'3 Over the next several years the structures of hemoglobin,4,5 lysozyme,6,7 and ribonuclease8,9 were revealed, each providing rich information about the intricacies and beauty of protein architecture and the relationships between shape and function. By the early 1970s, there were at least a dozen examples of protein structures that had been determined by x-ray crystallography, and it was clear to some that there would be much to learn by comparative analyses of the data these structures provided. In 1971, the PDB was...

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS

Insulin has historically been much studied, since it is a small protein that proved to be relatively easy to isolate from natural sources, such as from pig and beef pancreases. Dorothy Hodgkin took the first x-ray diffraction photographs of insulin in 1935. The structure was not solved until 34 years later, when the structure of 2-Zn insulin was reported by Hodgkin and her co-workers in August 1969. She was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work on insulin. The earliest insulin structure that can be found in the PDB is that of 4-Zn insulin, published in Nature by Hodgkin etal. in 1976 - 1ZNI. Since that time, almost 200 structures of insulin or closely related molecules have been deposited in the PDB archives. Approximately one-quarter of these structures were studied using NMR techniques.

Identification of the Deceased

In many fire deaths, thermal injuries to the body are insignificant. Death is said to be caused by smoke inhalation. There are no distinct disfiguring burns and establishment of identity is readily performed by personal identification, photographs, or fingerprints. If a body is charred to such a degree that facial structures are mutilated and no fingerprints can be obtained, other methods of identification must be used. Most commonly, this is dental identification. In all severely burned bodies where fingerprints are unobtainable, dental charts should be prepared and X-rays of the jaws obtained. These can be used to compare with the dental X-rays and charts of the individual who is believed to be the deceased. While dental charts and X-rays can be made with the teeth in situ, it is simpler to remove the jaws, especially for adequate X-raying. The jaws then can be split down the middle and more accurate lateral X-ray films taken.9 These procedures should cause no problem with the next...

Gel Photography Of Coomassie Or Silverstained Gels

The instant films from Polaroid are ideal for fast, high-quality photographs of gels for laboratory notebooks and publications. Typically, type 57 (4 x 5-in., MP4 camera) or type 667 (3 4 x 41 4-in., DS 34 camera) black and white film is used for documentation at a shutter speed of V q to Hq sec with an aperture of f16. Type 55 and 665 positive negative films provide not only a high-quality print, but also a fine-grain, medium-format negative that can be used to produce multiple photographs of the gel in any size for these films, use a shutter speed of V4 to V2 sec and an aperture off16. Aperture settings off11 or higher should be used for sharp photographs. If the picture is too light, increase the shutter speed or go to a higher f number. If the picture is too dark, decrease shutter speed or go to a lower f number (adapted from Polaroid Guide to Instant Imaging).

System Change Control

Clearly, it is important to keep track of and document changes to automated systems just as scientists document changes in work they perform manually. Records should be kept of the software and hardware used during specific projects or during a specific time frame. Systems with open software allow annotations to be written, dated, and initialed directly in the text by appropriate personnel. Software may be stored in electronic and or printed form and should be stored in a location that is safe from chemical hazards and electromagnetic radiation . Hardware configurations may be stored as drawings, lists of components, photographs, and videotapes. These records should be documented and archived in a manner and according to a schedule that is appropriate to the needs and practices of the laboratory and the analytical application. Instrument logbooks are commonly used to document, store, and archive these records.

Phenylthiocarbamyl Amino Acid Analysis

Waters markets a PicoTAG Work Station (Bidlingmeyer et al., 1986) designed after the manual sequencing and PTC-AAA station developed by Tarr (1986). Original workstation descriptions with schematic diagrams appear in the above articles, and photographs of workstations are also available (Kuhn and Crabb, 1986). The work area can be arranged according to individual preference. The vacuum argon flush system, 6 x 50-mm tubes, and 40-ml reaction vials with Mininert slide valves particularly facilitate manual acid hydrolysis and PTC derivatization protocols.

Migration Pathways of Cranial Neural Crest Cells

Ectodermal Placodes And Neural Crest

Cranial neural crest migration streams in the axolotl visualized by in situ hybridization for the AP-2 gene. (A) Stage 29 (16-somite stage) axolotl embryo showing six AP-2+ neural crest migration streams in the head (mandibular, hyoid, and four branchial streams). Premigratory trunk neural crest cell precursors can be seen as a dark line at the dorsal midline of the embryo. (B) Transverse section through a stage 26 (10-11 somite stage) axolotl embryo showing AP-2+ neural crest cells (NC) moving out from the neural tube (nt) and down to surround the mesodermal core of the mandibular arch. (C) Horizontal section through the pharynx of a stage 34 (24-25 somite stage) axolotl embryo showing AP-2+ neural crest cells (NC) around the mesodermal cores of each pharyngeal arch. e, eye mb, midbrain mes., mesodermal NC, neural crest nt, neural tube ov, otic vesicle ph, pharynx. Staging follows Bordzilovskaya et al. (1989). All photographs courtesy of Daniel Meulemans, California...

Practical Fret Microscopy

The methods for using FRET to determine changes in molecular conformation or molecular proximity are shaped by the basics of the FRET phenomenon listed in the previous section and summarized in Table 18.10.1. Four methods are, in general, used for FRET microscopy, imaging FRET. Three methods use steady-state measurements of the fluorescence of labeled molecules. The equipment required for these three ranges from a standard fluorescence microscope with digital camera to the same sort of microscope fitted with carefully chosen optics and filters. The fourth is a time-resolved method that makes greater demands on instrumentation than the others, and so is not widely used at present. These four methods measure (1) depolarization of polarized fluorescence (2) donor-sensitized acceptor fluorescence (3) donor quenching by acceptor and (4) donor fluorescence lifetime. Each will be discussed.

Proper Alignment and Adjustment of the Light Microscope

Optical microscopes can be powerful tools in biomedical research and diagnosis if properly aligned and adjusted. This is essential for optimal image quality and accurate quantitative measurements. Video cameras, digital cameras, and electronic image processing can improve visibility of structural detail resolved by the microscope optics in comparison to viewing by eye. However, the quality and accuracy of the image still depends critically on proper microscope alignment and adjustment.

Calibration and Shading Correction for Fluorescence Microscopes

Cell fluorescence, just like any light reaching a digital camera, is quantified in units of the gray scale. Such quantitation permits reliable comparison between samples only if they are all imaged within a short time interval and on the same instrument however, any change in microscope alignment or camera settings, let alone moving the sample to a different microscope, is likely to affect the measured gray level.

Preparing for Surgery

The surgeon will take photographs of you before and after surgery so the two of you can evaluate the results of the procedure. Before surgery the doctor will closely examine the part of your body to be altered and will discuss a number of issues related to the specific type of surgery you wish to have. For example, if you are planning to have a facelift, the doctor will closely evaluate your head

Assessment of Transgene Expression

It is extremely difficult to obtain good photographs of the mouse retina using the Kowa camera. This procedure is recommended only for experts in indirect ophthalmoscopy. In some instances (e.g., if the cornea or lens have been damaged during the injection), it will be difficult to clearly visualize the retina. For experiments incorporating use of GFP-containing adenoviruses, it may be possible to observe retinal fluorescence with oph-thalmoscopy without focusing with the 90-diopter lens (i.e., fluorescence may be visible through illumination with blue light alone).

The Living Rape Victim

Vagina Rape Victim

When the victim of a rape is brought into the hospital, she should be triaged ahead of the non-emergency patients. Written, witnessed consent should be obtained before the examination, collection of specimens, release of information to authorities, and taking of photographs. A female chaperone should always be present. The name of the victim is recorded, along with the date and time of the alleged assault, the date and time of the examination, and, if the police have been notified, the attending law officer's name and badge. The law officer is not present at the examination. The only people present should be the examiner and a nurse, one of whom is usually the female chaperone. If there is a bite mark on the patient or if the patient gives a history of the perpetrator's licking a portion of her body (e.g., the nipples), these areas should be swabbed in an attempt to recover saliva. These swabs can then be analyzed for DNA. Positive DNA identification has been made in a number of cases...


In this book, Sidney Markowitz and Steven Valadez have contributed to the sections on imaging and ease histories, respectively. Stephane Schwatrz was kind enough to provide pictures of variously discolorcd teeth, as was Maury Krystel, who also gave us valuable comments on the manuscript. Other photographs were provided by Dan Fischer and Fat Anne Irene Doro.

Rl81a85434 2007

Why one more book on dermatopathology Certainly there are many outstanding encyclopedic textbooks already written and even recently updated. Why one more atlas Hopefully you will agree that this book is different. We have tried to pair clinical and histologic photographs to enhance the reader's appreciation for clinical-pathological correlation. In addition, this text is meant to be user friendly whether you are approaching dermatopathology from a background of dermatology or pathology. Herein we hope to share with you our enthusiasm as well as the helpfulness of clinical-pathological as well as pathological-clinical correlation. Ideally after reading through some of our examples, the next time you look through the microscopic oculars at a skin slide, you will ask yourself how would this lesion look clinically Conversely, when you examine a skin lesion or rash in vivo, you will ask yourself how would this look under the microscope Once you ask yourself these questions enough times, it...


Photographs I would like to thank Dr. John Townsend, Chairman of the Department of Pathology, University of Missouri, for allowing me to use departmental resources to complete this project. I am indebted to Kirstie Calcutt and Ardath Calvert for their help with the photographs. I would also like to thank Dr. Robert Calaluce who edited some of the material used in this handbook.

Patient Preparation

Peel preparation varies with the condition being treated. Regimens differ for photodamage, hy-perpigmentation (melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation) and acne vulgaris 10 . In addition there are special issues to be considered when treating darker racial-ethnic groups (see darker skin section). A detailed history and cutaneous examination is performed in all patients prior to chemical peeling. Standardized photographs are taken of the areas to be peeled including full-face frontal and lateral views.


Corresponding time-lapse photographs of the axolotl dorsal surface are shown in Figs. 2.3D through F. A regular grid was placed on the first figure and deformed manually to match observed cell motions. The deformation produced in the finite element simulation is quite similar to that observed in the time- FIGURE 2.3 In-plane shape changes associated with neurulation. A-C Finite element simulations driven by notochord elongation and microfilament contraction. D-F Corresponding time-lapse photographs of axolotl embryo development. Cell motions were tracked manually and used to construct a tracking grid. After Clausi and Brodland (1993). FIGURE 2.3 In-plane shape changes associated with neurulation. A-C Finite element simulations driven by notochord elongation and microfilament contraction. D-F Corresponding time-lapse photographs of axolotl embryo development. Cell motions were tracked manually and used to construct a tracking grid. After Clausi and Brodland (1993).


Stained gels can be visualized on a blue-light transilluminator, such as the Visi-Blue series of transilluminators (UVP), Dark Reader transilluminator (Clare Chemical Research), or on a 300-nm UV transilluminator however, the sensitivity will be lower than with a scanning instrument. Images can be documented using either conventional or digital photography. With a Polaroid camera and Polaroid 667 black-and-white film, use an appropriate long-pass filter, such as the SYPRO photographic filter (S-6656), and exposure times of 15 to 30 sec. The red-orange filters typically used to photograph gels stained with ethidium bromide will not work well. For digital cameras, use a filter that corresponds closely to the emission characteristics of the stain, such as a 600 nm band-pass filter.


Figure 6.13.2 Typical example of morphological images of leukocytes identified according to the strategy described in the Basic Protocol. Dot plots correspond to those in Figure 6.13.1. (A) Relocalized eosinophils. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained cells were relocalized using gate 2 (dot plot A). (B) Relocalized neutrophils from both gate 5 (dot plot B) and gate 8 (dot plot D1). (C) Relocalized monocytes from both gate 5 (dot plot B) and gate 7 (dot plot D1). (D) Relocalized lymphocytes from gate 4 (dot plot B) and gate CD3+CD4-. ( E) Relocalized basophils from gate 6 (dot plot B). Images were taken with a 100x objective and a digital camera (Olympus Camedia C-2020 Zoom A,E) or a 40x objective and the built-in CCD-camera (B,C,D) and show the first eight subsequently relocalized cells. Figure reprinted from Gerstner et al. (2000), with modifications, with permission from Elsevier Science.

Thermal Approach

Three patients were studied whose gestational ages were 24, 26, and 27, respectively. The studies were performed in the same delivery room in July 1988. The patients gave an informed consent for the studies, but only the 27-year-old patient agreed to release the photographs of her labor. The patient went into spontaneous labor for her first baby at a room temperature of 28 C and an atmospheric pressure of 736 mmHG in Beijing, China. Since the infrared detection apparatus had to be installed in a special delivery room, the observations and recordings made through the apparatus could be started only several hours before the deliveries. The 27-year-old patient was sent to the delivery room at 6 15 am on July 7. The record of her birth process started at 6 30 am and lasted until the delivery at 8 40 am. Figure 3.7 shows the orientation of the photographs. The color bar chart ranges in color from shades of black at the minimum power level, through shades of several other colors, and to...

Peeling Preparations

A detailed history and cutaneous examination is performed in all patients prior to chemical peeling. The peeling procedure should be explained in depth to the patient including a discussion of the benefits, as well as the risks of the procedure. In addition, standardized photographs are taken of the areas to be peeled, including full frontal and lateral views.

Instant Photography

Personalized before and after photographs that are given to a patient following treatment are the surest method for having that person motivate his friends and relatives to seek treatment Figures 8-4 and 8-5). The excitement that an individual will exhibit regarding a recent change (such as having teeth whitened) will wear off within a week or two. Therefore, if the dentist wishes to capitalize on this excited state, he must deliver the photographs as soon as possible after the completion of treatment, pref- The Polaroid CU5 is an instant print system that is customized for dental photography. Prints are ready within one minute, and the resolution and the color reproduction will demonstrate the changes of tooth whitening very clearly.1 The camera is easy to use, and the photographs are consistently good. The prints can be given to the patient in a small folder with the dentist's name and number imprinted in case someone wishes to have a similar treatment.

Anatomy Of A Smile

Most people feel they can recognize an attractive smile, but individual opinion will vary, particularly when cultural factors are considered. Research is conducted by showing test subjects photographs or computer-manipulated images of various smiles and having them graded for attractiveness (Fig. 23-13).* Such research is quantified in the standard dental esthetic index (DAI), an orthodontic treatment need index based on perceptions of dental esthetics in the United States . 29 In general, an extensive smile that showed the complete outline of the maxillary anterior teeth and teeth posterior to the first molar was considered the most attractive and youthful. (A smile in an aging individual shows less of the maxillary incisors and more of the mandibular incisors.) In smiles that were considered the most attractive, the incisal edges of the maxillary teeth were parallel to the lower lip (Fig. 23-14), a factor that should be considered when shaping restorations.

Mr Jeremy A Lavy

Many of the photographs in this book were taken by myself but I am grateful for the expertise of the Photographic Department of the Royal National Throat Nose & Ear Hospital for many of the better illustrations. My thanks also go to my colleagues who have contributed illustrations to this edition Professor Lund, Mr Croft, Mr Nasser, Mr Gault, Mr Bailey, Mr Howard, Professor Ramsden, Mr Proops, Professor Weerda, Professor Wright, Dr Glyn Lloyd, Dr AH Davies, Dr Van Hasselt, Dr J Brennand, Dr G Scadding.

Video encoder

The spatial resolution of early generation retinal, optic nerve, or cortical visual neuroprosthetic systems is expected to be quite low because of the limited numbers of electrodes in the neural interface. Thus, just about any conventional video camera could provide adequate spatial resolution for a laboratory-based system. As the temporal resolution of the human visual system is relatively low (on the order of 30 Hz), conventional, inexpensive video cameras can easily provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for a laboratory experimental system. For a clinical device, miniaturized video cameras are already commercially available. Shown in Figure 11.6 are glasses that contain a miniaturized camera in the bridge of the glasses. The very small aperture of the camera (1 mm) makes it virtually invisible and provides for a very large depth of field without the use of additional lenses. The camera provides a color NTSC signal and allows for encoding images at distance, and for...


Observations and photographs of stained embryos A binocular (M420, LeicaWild) equipped with optic fibers (Intralux 6000-1, Volpi) and a photoautomate (MPS 48, Leica-Wild). 13. Examination of sections requires a microscope equipped with dark-field illumination and a conventional or digital camera.

Signal Processing

Signal-processing electronics must accomplish a number of tasks. First, the electronics must transform the signal coming out of the video encoder into a set of discrete signals, one for each electrode in the neural interface. Next, the encoder must be able to adapt the incoming light signals into a range of stimulus levels that is appropriate for the neurons that are being stimulated that is, the range of stimulus levels must be the same regardless of the level of ambient illumination (a bright, sunny afternoon or a dimly lit restaurant). This will require an automatic gain control circuit that will duplicate the adaptation properties of the human photoreceptors. The signal-processing electronics could also perform image compression, somewhat like that achieved with the MPEG techniques used to compress audio and visual images in digital cameras and DVD video disks. Finally, the signal-processing electronics may have to accomplish remapping of the visual image such that a vertical line...


In the absence of an imaging unit, the dentist can use photographs of previous cases to illustrate the scope of tooth whitening to the patient. While this requires some imagination on the part of the patient, the efficacy of the treatment and the skills of the dentist are both highlighted. The dentist should, preferably, choose the photographs of a case where the problems were similar to the ones that the current patient exhibits.

Clinical Technique

Types Dental Stock Trays

Photographs should be taken prior to any treatment, including even a prophylaxis. This set of photographs should include at least one photograph with a standard shade guide tab in the field for color reference. Often the discussions concerning the treatment plan can be more meaningful if the patient is shown photographs of the type of results which have been achieved in similar situations with other patients. If this is done, however, the patient needs to be made aware that every tooth is different and the examples simply cannot constitute a guarantee of similar results with their teeth.

New To This Edition

This section now consists of six chapters, the previous chapter on History, Examination, Diagnosis and Prognosis having been divided into two separate chapters History Taking and Clinical Examination and Diagnostic Casts and Related Procedures. The section now includes additional step-by-step sequences of photographs of commonly performed diagnostic procedures and new artwork to clarify hinge axis location and border movements. After three editions, it is difficult, if not impossible, to be 100 percent accurate and complete in crediting all sources of information, ideas, illustrations, photographs, and concepts. Without the selfless help and support of so many others, we could not have managed this overwhelming task. Once again, whenever we approached colleagues, friends, and manufacturers, our requests for permission to include materials were invariably most kindly approved. Throughout, we have made every effort o correctly identify all sources and individuals who helped...

Tretinoin Peeling

Glycolic Acid Peel And Hyperpigmentation

Tretinoin 1 has also been used as a chemical peeling agent 22,23 . The efficacy of tretinoin peels was compared with glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma in dark skinned patients 23 . In a split face study of ten Indian women, 1 tretinoin was applied to one half of the face, while 70 glycolic acid was applied to the opposite side. Peels were performed weekly. Significant improvement occurred on both sides as assessed by photographs and a Modi-

The Digital Darkroom

Photographs of images viewed through the microscope have long been the preferred means of disseminating microscopic information. This has historically meant using film as the medium for recording images. However, the use of computers for acquisition and display of images, along with the explosion of the World Wide Web (WWW), has led to the rapid expansion of the use of computer-based image analysis and presentation programs for production of permanent hard-copy microscopic images. Digital imaging provides the user with great latitude with respect to speed of image acquisition and data presentation. While it is a great improvement over film, the use of computer-based image-analysis and presentation software provides a ready means for altering image information, and care must be taken to maintain the original data in the final image. There are also other problems with electronic image presentation e.g., there often exists incompatibility between the data formats of the software used for...


A bite mark on a victim or an assailant can be matched to the person making the bite. An expert who can analyze and interpret this data is specifically trained to make these determinations. Prior to making molds and photographs of the marks, an odontologist swabs the area to remove any saliva. An offender's blood type can be determined if they are one of the 80 of the population whose blood type is secreted in their bodily fluids. An odontologist is also an important consultant when positive identification is required. Dental comparisons are useful when visual and fingerprint identification cannot be made.

Choosing a Surgeon

Once you have narrowed your choices to two or three doctors, schedule an interview with each one so you can discuss his or her approach to the procedure and ask about fees. Because health insurance plans do not usually cover the cost of cosmetic surgery, you will need to determine whether the surgeon offers payment plans or whether he or she accepts credit cards. When you call for an appointment, ask for brochures about the surgery in question and read through them before your visit so you can ask informed questions about the procedure and its risks and possible outcomes. Write down your questions in advance. Make sure that the surgeon provides you with realistic expectations about the potential results of the surgery. Ask to see photographs of other patients who have had the procedure you are considering. Ask the surgeon to explain any terms you do not understand. After the interviews, you will be in a good position to make an informed decision.

Tissue Examination

Some reporter gene products can be visualized in the eye in vivo. GFP, for example, can be identified by ophthalmoscopy by illuminating the eye with a blue light (Fig. 3C) (1). The procedures described for ophthalmoscopy in Subheading 3.2.3. are followed except that a gelatin Wratten filter (Wratten 47B gelatin excitation filter, cat. 149-5795 Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) is taped over the light source. Use of this filter results in transmission of blue light at 450-490 nm, which corresponds to excitatory wavelengths for the GFP (and the enhanced GFP, EGFP) chromophore. Illumination of the GFP-expressing eye with this blue light will result in emission of green fluorescence. Photographs can be made using a Kowa camera (Keeler Instruments, Broomall, PA) equipped with the same Wratten excitation filter as described above (see Note 4.3.1.).

Autumn Behringer

Every couple gets married a bit differently. When I was a bride, I wore a simple white dress and ballet slippers, skipped the veil, had photographs taken in a garden, and served filet mignon to the guests. When my friend Dawn was married, she wore a black dress and carried dead roses, and the guests came in costume since it was Halloween. I have another friend who wants to get married by a judge atop a mountain in Oregon, and still another planning a posh, black-tie, wedding event in downtown Chicago. I have sat through Catholic weddings, Jewish weddings, and half Catholic half Jewish weddings. I have seen ceremonies with no attendants and those with a dozen I have seen women as groomsmen and mothers as bridesmaids.


Although most great artists have never studied the brain and how it functions, they appear to have implicit knowledge about how the brain functions and they use this knowledge when painting, allowing the people who view their art to obtain closure. For example, Banich, Heller, and Levy (1989) noticed that most paintings are right-left asymmetrical. These investigators wanted to learn if the right-left position of the objects in the painting made a difference in how people would judge the quality of the painting. They photographed many paintings by respected artists. These painting, however, were not well-known to the general population. They made slides from these photographs and showed them to people who had never seen these paintings before the study. They showed one half of the participants a slide of each painting as portrayed by the artist and the other half of the participants saw a mirror image of each painting, so the right-left was

Historical Overview

Figure 8 Scheme showing all the adult derivatives of the genital disc in both sexes ((a) female (c) male) and photographs of external adult structures ((b) female (d) male). External female terminalia dAp, dorsal anal plate vAp, ventral anal plate T8, tergite eight dVu, dorsal vulva vVu, ventral vulva dVp, dorsal vaginal plate vVp, ventral vaginal plate. Internal female terminalia U, uterus Sr, seminal receptacle Spt, spermatheca Pov, parovaria Od, oviduct (it is connected to the ovaries). Male external terminalia Ap, anal plate Ga, genital arch Ll, lateral lobe Lp, lateral plate Cl, clasper PA, penis apparatus Ad, apodeme Hy, hypandrium. Internal male terminalia Ed, ejaculatory duct Sp, sperm pump Pg, paragonia (male accessory gland) Vdef, vas deferens (it is connected to the testes). Figure 8 Scheme showing all the adult derivatives of the genital disc in both sexes ((a) female (c) male) and photographs of external adult structures ((b) female (d) male). External female terminalia...

Champion Flash Photography

Champion Flash Photography

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