Abnormality with Normal Result Condition


Cancer antigen 0-35 U/mL 125 (CA-125)

Elevated In 80% of Serial measured; elevation Indicates the patients tumor progression; decrease indi cates effective antitumor treatment; limited value for screening (highlight box continues on page 682)

682 Ovarian Cancer

Diagnostic Highlights (continued)


Normal Result

Abnormality with Condition


Transvaginal ultrasound

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); serum alpha-fetoprotein

Exploratory laparotomy

No masses noted

Normally are not present in non-pregnant women

Elevated in embryonal cell carcinoma and dysgerminoma

Tumor is visualized

Used to detect and evaluate ovarian masses

Serially measured; elevation indicates tumor progression; decrease indicates effective antitumor treatment

Accurate diagnosing and staging

Other Tests: Computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sonography are useful for monitoring the course of the disease. Upper and lower bowel series and intravenous pyelography are done to determine the extent of the disease and whether the cancer is primary or metastatic. Liver function studies, blood chemistries, and chest x-rays are also done.

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