Causes

Nonrenal: Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, exercise, heat exposure, severe burns, insensible loss from mechanical ventilation, profuse diaphoresis Renal: Diuresis, severe hyperglycemia, increased production of urea (high protein diet), IV administration of mannitol Overadministration of saline solutions, particularly in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis and osmotic diuresis; overadministration of hypertonic salt solutions; overingestion of salt

Acute diabetes insipidus; hypodipsia in infants, elderly persons, and debilitated adults based on the ratio of total body water (TBW) to total body sodium: hypovolemic hypernatremia, hypervolemic hypernatremia, and euvolemic hypernatremia (Table 5).

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