Causes

The causes of PID vary by geogrphic location and population. Many types of microorganisms, such as a virus, bacteria, fungus, or parasite, can cause PID. Common organisms involved in PID include Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, staphylococci, streptococci, coliform bacteria, mycoplasmas, and Clostridium perfringens. The means of transmission is usually by sexual intercourse, but PID can also be transmitted by childbirth or by an abortion. Organisms enter the endocervical canal and proceed into the upper uterus, tubes, and ovaries. During menses, the endocervical canal is slightly dilated, facilitating the movement of bacteria to the upper reproductive organs. Bacteria multiply rapidly in the favorable environment of the sloughing endometrium. Douching increases the risk for PID because it destroys the protective normal flora of the vagina, and it could flush bacteria up into the uterus. Associated risk factors for PID include: 16 to 24 years of age, unmarried, nulliparous, history of multiple sex partners, history of STIs, use of an intrauterine device (IUD) with multiple sex partners. Risk of reoccurrence of PID is possible with the use of latex condoms.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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