Causes

The most common pathogen that leads to bladder infection is Escherichia coli, which accounts for about 80% of cases of cystitis. Predisposing factors are urethral damage from childbirth, catheterization, or surgery; decreased frequency of urination; other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus; and, in women, frequent sexual activity and some forms of contraceptives (poorly fitting diaphragms, use of spermicides). No one is certain about the frequency of viral and herpetic cystitis because culture results are sometimes negative even when the patient has the condition. A large number of people probably have asymptomatic infections initially with herpes simplex viruses, so the incidence of herpetic cystitis may be higher than culture-positive results indicate. Hemorrhagic cystitis may also occur owing to adenoviral infections, particularly in people who are immunocompromised, such as patients with bone marrow transplantation or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

The cause of IC is unknown but has been linked to chemical agents such as some medications (cyclophosphamide) and radiation therapy. Some experts suggest that PBD is an autoimmune response.

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