Causes

The loss of circulating volume can result from a number of conditions. Hemorrhage caused by active blood loss that results from trauma is a frequent source of hypovolemia. Active bleeding or rupture of internal organs, such as the bowel or the fallopian tube when caused by an ectopic pregnancy, can quickly result in hypovolemia even without obvious bleeding. Profound decreases in circulating fluid volume can be caused by the plasma shifts seen in burns and ascites. Other sources of hypovolemia include decreases in fluid intake (dehydration) and increases in fluid output (vomiting, diarrhea, excessive nasogastric drainage, draining wounds, and diaphoresis). Excessive diuresis from diuretic overuse, diabetic ketoacidosis, and diabetes insipidus can also cause hypovolemia.

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