Numerous factors contribute to the development of NS. These factors may be of idiopathic, secondary, or congenital origin. Idiopathic NS, the most common form, occurs in the absence of any systemic preexisting disease. One type, minimal change NS, is the most frequent form in children and, although the cause is unknown, is associated with autoimmune changes. Other causes of idiopathic NS are several forms of glomerulonephritis and focal sclerosis of the glomeruli. Secondary NS occurs during or following a known disease process, such as cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or lupus erythematosus. It also follows drug toxicity, insect stings, and venomous animal bites. Congenital NS is transmitted by a recessive gene.

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