Causes

The most common cause of hypochloremia is gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities, including prolonged vomiting, nasogastric suctioning, loss of potassium, and diarrhea. Loss of potassium, which occurs as a result of gastric suctioning and vomiting, further leads to hypochloremia because potassium frequently combines with chloride to form potassium chloride (KCl). Chloride is also lost through diarrhea, which has a high chloride content.

Other causes of hypochloremia are dietary changes, renal abnormalities, acid-base imbalances, and skin losses. Diets low in sodium can contribute to hypochloremia, as can medications such as thiazide and loop diuretics. Another common cause in hospitalized patients is the combination of stopping all oral intake during an illness and placing patients on intravenous (IV) fluid.

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