Appendicitis is generally caused by obstruction. Since the appendix is a small, finger-like appendage of the cecum, it is prone to obstruction as it regularly fills and empties with intestinal contents. The obstruction may be caused by a fecalith (a hard mass of feces), a foreign body in the lumen of the appendix, fibrous disease of the bowel wall, infestation of parasites, or twisting of the appendix by adhesions. Of all cases, approximately 60% are associated with hyperplasia of the submucosal lymphoid follicles and 35% to fecal stasis or fecalith.

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