The cause of prostate cancer remains unclear, but age, viruses, family history, diet, and andro-gens are thought to have contributing roles. Men who have an affected first- and second-degree relative have an eightfold increased risk of developing prostate cancer. A high-fat diet may alter the production of sex hormones and growth factors, increasing the risk of prostate cancer. Environmental exposure to cadmium (an element found in cigarettes and alkaline batteries) is also considered a risk factor.

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