Evidence links the development of bone cancer with exposure to therapeutic radiation. A higher incidence has not occurred, however, in populations exposed to other radiation, such as survivors of the atomic bomb. There have been reports of siblings with bone cancer, suggesting genetic influences. Osteogenic sarcoma is most common after puberty, which suggests that hormonal fluctuations and spurts of growth may be involved. Bone cancers tend to be more common in adults who are affected by Paget's disease, hyperparathyroidism, and chronic osteomyelitis. The development of bone cancer has also been linked to trauma and sites of old bone infarcts or fractures, multiple exostoses (overgrowth of bone tissue), multiple osteochondromas (benign bone tumor), and bone marrow transplantation.

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