The cause of FPD can be attributed to maternal and fetal factors. Maternal factors include inability of the pelvic soft tissues to stretch adequately and inadequate diameters of the maternal bony pelvis. Contractures of the maternal pelvis may occur in one or more diameters of the pelvic inlet, midpelvis, or pelvic outlet. Fetal macrosomia (fetal weight >4000 g), incomplete flexion of the fetal head onto the chest, occiput posterior or transverse fetal position, and inability of the fetal head to mold to the maternal pelvis all contribute to the syndrome.

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