Anaphylaxis can result from a variety of causes, but it most commonly occurs in response to food, medications, and insect bites. Severe reactions to penicillin occur with a frequency of 1 to 5 patients per 10,000 courses of medication, and deaths from penicillin occur in 1 case per 50,000 to 100,000 courses of medication. Insect stings cause 25 to 50 deaths per year in the United States. Other common sources are iodine-based contrast materials and medications that have been derived from biological protein sources. These medications can include those derived from horse sera, vaccines, enzymes, and hormones. Foods such as fish, eggs, peanuts, milk products, and chocolate can cause allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.

74 Anaphylaxis

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