Causes

The cause of lupus erythematosus is not known. A familial association has been noted that suggests a genetic predisposition, but a genetic link has not been identified. Environmental factors, susceptibility to certain viruses, and an immune system dysfunction with production of autoan-tibodies are possible causes. Hormonal abnormality and ultraviolet radiation are considered possible risk factors for the development of SLE. Some drugs have been implicated as initiating the onset of lupus-like symptoms and aggravating existing disease; they include hydralazine hydrochloride, procainamide hydrochloride, penicillin, isonicotinic acid hydrazide, chlorpro-mazine, phenytoin, and quinidine.

582 Lupus Erythematosus

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