The predominant causative factor in AS is congenital malformation of the aortic valve. Congenital causes can lead to unicuspid and bicuspid or malformed valves. When they become calcified,

92 Aortic Valve Stenosis symptoms may occur. Stenosis can also occur with narrowing of the subvalvular outflow tract by fibroelastic membranes or muscle tissue. Rheumatic heart disease and degenerative calcification are other causes of AS. The patient's age when the condition manifests itself usually suggests the cause.

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