Meningitis is most frequently caused by bacterial or viral agents. In newborns, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent bacterial organism; in other age groups, it is S. pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Haemophilus influenzae is the most common organism in

606 Meningitis unvaccinated children and adults who contract meningitis. Viral meningitis is caused by many viruses. Depending on the cause, isolation precautions may be indicated early in treatment. There has been a decrease in viral meningitis in locations where immunizations have become routine.

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