Causes

Infection that results in epididymitis is usually caused by either a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or another form of infection. STIs leading to epididymitis include infection by Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and syphilis. Epididymitis may be a complication of prostatitis or urethritis, or it may be associated with chronic urinary infection caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, or coliform pathogens. Strain or pressure during voiding may force urine that is harboring pathogens from the urethra or prostate through the vas deferens to the epididymis.

Urologic abnormalities due to structural alterations are common in children, who may have an ectopic ureter, ectopic vas deferens, prostatic utricle, urethral duplication, posterior urethral valves, urethrorectal fistula, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, or vesicoureteral reflux. Common structural abnormalities in men older than 40 years include bladder outlet obstruction or urethral stricture.

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