Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Teach the patient and caregivers the importance of an adequate fluid intake and normal sodium intake and the food appropriate for a balanced sodium diet. If fluid restriction is indicated, tell the patient that using ice chips, iced pops, or lemon drops may reduce thirst. Teach the family that hyponatremia can recur with persistent vomiting or diarrhea because sodium is abundant in the gastrointestinal tract; this fact is especially important for infants, children, and elderly and debilitated patients.

DRG Category: 300 Mean LOS: 6.3 days Description: MEDICAL: Endocrine Disorders with CC

The parathyroid glands—four small endocrine glands located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates calcium and phosphorus balance by affecting gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of calcium, bone resorption (removal of bone tissue by absorption) of calcium, and renal regulation of both calcium and phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus have a reciprocal relationship in the body; high levels of calcium lead to low levels of phosphorus. Hypoparathyroidism is a rare clinical syndrome and is associated with a deficiency or absence of PTH or a decreased peripheral action of PTH.

Although both hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia result from hypoparathyroidism, hypocalcemia accounts for the majority of clinical manifestations. The human body is able to compensate for low or moderate hypocalcemia. The seriousness of the disease is variable with the degree of hypocalcemia and the speed with which it develops. Acute hypoparathyroidism follows swiftly after trauma or removal of the parathyroid glands. The acute form, as with most hormone deficiencies, can result in life-threatening conditions: tetany, hypocalcemic seizures, and respiratory obstruction caused by laryngospasm. Autoimmune hypoparathyroidism develops more slowly. Most clinical manifestations are reversible with treatment; those that are a result of calcification deposits associated with chronic hypoparathyroidism (such as cataracts) and parkinsonian symptoms are not.

0 0

Post a comment