Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Instruct the patient about foods rich in calcium, vitamin D, and protein. Emphasize the effect of drugs on serum calcium levels. High intakes of alcohol and caffeine decrease calcium absorption, as does moderate cigarette smoking. Patients with a tendency to develop renal calculi should be told to consult their physician before increasing their calcium intake. When hypocal-cemia is caused by hypoparathyroidism, milk and milk products are omitted from the patient's diet to decrease phosphorus intake.

Be sure the patient understands any calcium supplements prescribed, including dosages, route, action, and side effects. Advise the patient that calcium may cause constipation, and review methods to maintain bowel elimination. Hypercalcemia may develop as a consequence of the treatment for hypocalcemia. Teach the patient the signs and symptoms of increased serum calcium levels and the need to call the physician if they develop.

DRG Category: 296 Mean LOS: 5.4 days Description: MEDICAL: Nutrition and

Miscellaneous Metabolic Disorders, Age > 17 with CC

I I ypochloremia refers to a serum chloride level below 95 mEq/L. Normal serum chloride level is 95 to 108 mEq/L. Chloride is the major anion in the extracellular fluid (ECF). The intra-cellular level of chloride is only about 1 mEq/L. Chloride is regulated in the body primarily through its relationship with sodium. Serum levels of both sodium and chloride often parallel each other.

A main function of chloride in the body is to join with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid (HCl). HCl aids in digestion and activates enzymes, such as salivary amylase. Chloride plays a role in maintaining the serum osmolarity and body water balance. The normal serum osmolarity ranges between 280 and 295 mOsm/L.

Chloride deficit leads to a number of physiological alterations such as ECF volume contraction, potassium depletion, intracellular acidosis, and increased bicarbonate generation. Hypochloremia, similar to hyponatremia, also causes a decrease in the serum osmolarity. This decrease means that there is a decrease in sodium and chloride ions in proportion to water in the ECF. When there is a body water excess, chloride also may be decreased along with sodium, preventing reabsorption of body water by the kidneys.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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