Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Make sure that the parents understand all aspects of the treatment regimen, with particular attention to taking the full course of medication therapy. Make sure the parents understand the necessity of any follow-up visits.

680 Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

DRG Category: 366 Mean LOS: 5.9 days Description: MEDICAL: Malignancy, Female Reproductive System with CC DRG Category: 357 Mean LOS: 8.9 days Description: SURGICAL: Uterine and Adnexa

Procedures for Ovarian or Adnexal Malignancy

C3varian cancer is the primary cause of death from reproductive system malignancies in women. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 2005 in the United States, 22,220 new cases of ovarian cancer would be diagnosed, and it would take the life of 16,200 women. Only 77% have a 1-year survival rate, 44% have a 5-year survival rate. Only 19% of the cases are diagnosed before metastasis has occurred. Because of the lack of early detection and the rapid progression of the disease, the number of deaths caused by ovarian cancer has risen. No long-term improvement in the survival rate has occurred in the past 30 years.

Three types of ovarian cancers exist owing to the three types of tissue in the ovary: primary epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors, and gonadal stromal (sex cord) tumors. Primary epithelial tumors compose approximately 90% of all ovarian cancers and include serous and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, endometrioid tumors, and mesonephric tumors. They arise in the ovarian epithelium (known as mullerian epithelium). Germ cell tumors, which arise from an ovum, include endodermal sinus malignant tumors, embryonal carcinoma, immature teratomas, and dysgerminoma. Sex cord tumors, which arise from the ovarian stroma (the foundational support tissues of an organ), include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and arrhenoblastomas.

Ovarian cancers grow and spread silently until they affect the surrounding organs or cause abdominal distension. At the appearance of these symptoms, metastases to the fallopian tubes, uterus, ligaments, and other intraperitoneal organs occur. Tumors can spread through the lymph system and blood into the chest cavity.

As the disease progresses, the patient experiences multiple system complications. Peripheral edema, ascites, and intestinal obstruction can complicate the course of the disease. Patients develop severe nutritional deficiencies, electrolyte disturbances, and cachexia. If the lungs are involved, the patient develops malignant recurrent pleural effusions.

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