330 Epilepsy

• TABLE 1 Classification of Seizures

I. Partial (focal, local) seizures

A. Simple partial seizures: No impairment of consciousness

B. Complex partial seizures: Impaired consciousness, frequently include automatisms

C. Partial seizures that secondarily generalize

II. Generalized seizures: All have impairment of consciousness

A. Absence (previously known as petit mal) of "blank stare"; generally in children

B. Myoclonic seizures: Short, abrupt muscular contractions

C. Clonic seizures: Muscle contraction and relaxation

D. Tonic seizures: Abrupt increase in muscle tone

E. Tonic-clonic seizures (previously known as grand mal): quick, bilateral, severe jerking movements

F. Atonic seizures (drop attacks): Abrupt loss of muscle

III. Unclassified epileptic seizures: Inadequate or incomplete data to identify classification strokes, especially those that are embolic. Metabolic and systemic causes include acute overdose, acute drug withdrawal (especially CNS depressants, alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates), febrile states, hypoxia, hyperosmolarity, hypertensive encephalopathy, hyperthermia, and a multitude of electrolyte disturbances.

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