Fracture line forms a 90-degree angle to the axis of the bone

642 Musculoskeletal Trauma

Alcohol consumption is an important cofactor when it is associated with trauma. Acute alcohol intoxication may compound a head or musculoskeletal injury by masking the effects of pain and immobility. In addition, it may modify the patient's ability to tolerate multiple traumas by having a direct cardiodepressant effect. Profound hypotension and bradycardia may result from acute blood loss in the patient with musculoskeletal injury who has been drinking heavily.

Many complications can occur as a result of musculoskeletal trauma. Arterial damage and bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock. Nonunion of bones, avascular necrosis, bone necrosis, and peripheral nerve damage can lead to lasting deformities and disabilities. Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of skeletal muscle) can lead to renal failure, and bone injury can lead to fat emboli. Infection is the most common complication of trauma and can lead to sepsis and septic shock.

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