If the patient is on a fluid restriction, offer cold liquids because they satisfy thirst better than hot liquids. If indicated, encourage the patient to drink liquids high in sodium, such as broth. Report the signs and symptoms of water intoxication (increased irritability, change in sensorium, headache, hyperreflexia) to the physician immediately. If the patient is confused, provide frequent orientation to person, place, and time. Because seizures are a possible consequence of hyponatremia, institute seizure precautions. Keep the side rails padded and raised and the bed in the low position.

Maintain a stable, safe environment. Avoid sensory overload and confusing stimuli that may contribute to the patient's confused or agitated state. Explain to family members the rationales for disturbances in the patient's thought processes, for the fluid restriction, and for the measurement of intake and output.

494 Hypoparathyroidism

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