Mean LOS 55 days Description Medical Fractures of Hip and Pelvis

^K pelvic fracture is a break in the integrity of either the innominate bones or the sacrum. The innominate bones are connected posteriorly at the level of the sacrum and anteriorly to the symphysis pubis. These structures form a ring of bones with ligaments that are designed to accommodate weight distributed from the trunk to the pelvis across both the sacrum and the joints at the S1 vertebra. The S1 joints are maintained by the anterior and posterior ligaments and pelvic floor ligaments. The iliac vascular structures, lumbosacral plexus, lower genitourinary tract, reproductive organs, portions of the small bowel, distal colon and rectum, iliofemoral vessels, and lumbosacral plexus bilaterally all may be affected by a pelvic fracture.

Pelvic fractures account for approximately 3% of all fractures, with an associated mortality rate that ranges from 10% to 50%. The most immediate, serious complications that are associated with pelvic fractures are hemorrhage and exsanguination, which together cause up to 60% of the deaths from pelvic injuries because they can lead to the loss of 2 or 3 L of blood.

702 Pelvic Fractures

Pelvic fractures that are associated with sacral and sacroiliac disruption may cause sciatic and sacral nerve injuries.

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