Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Altered urinary elimination related to irritation of bladder mucosa OUTCOMES. Urinary elimination; Knowledge: Medication, Symptom control INTERVENTIONS. Medication prescribing; Urinary elimination management


An acid-ash diet may be encouraged. A diet of meats, eggs, cheese, prunes, cranberries, plums, and whole grains can increase the acidity of the urine. Foods not allowed on this diet include carbonated beverages, anything containing baking soda or powder, fruits other than those previously stated, all vegetables except corn and lentils, and milk and milk products. The action of some medications used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) is diminished by acidic urine (nitrofurantoin); thus, review prescriptions before giving patients this diet.

Bacterial cystitis is usually treated with a 7- to 10-day course of antibiotics. Shortened and large single-dose regimens are currently under investigation. Most elderly patients need a full 7-to 10-day treatment, although caution is used in their management because of possible diminished renal capacity. Reinforce the need for patients to complete the therapy. Inform women of the possibility of developing a vaginal yeast infection during therapy, and review preventive measures.

A variety of treatments have been used for IC, including dietary and fluid management, time and stress management, and behavioral modification. Certain foods such as coffee, alcohol, tomatoes, vinegar, and chocolate may aggravate symptoms of IC. Other interventions that have been used with varying success are biofeedback and pelvic floor rehabilitation such as Kegel exercises, and bladder training programs. Generally, treatments are initiated in a progressively more invasive fashion until symptomatic relief is obtained.

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