Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Pain related to vasoconstriction or vasodilation

OUTCOMES. Comfort level; Pain control behavior; Pain level; Symptom control behavior; Symptom severity; Pain: Disruptive effects; Well-being

INTERVENTIONS. Medication administration; Medication management; Pain management; Comfort; Nutritional monitoring; Environmental management: Comfort; Biofeedback; Sleep enhancement; Guided imagery


Most patients can have their migraine headaches managed pharmacologically. Dietary modification may decrease symptoms; this includes reducing the intake of caffeinated beverages, monosodium glutamate, cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, citrus fruit, chocolate, and red wine.

Pharmacologic Highlights

Medication or

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

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