Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Pain related to vasoconstriction or vasodilation

OUTCOMES. Comfort level; Pain control behavior; Pain level; Symptom control behavior; Symptom severity; Pain: Disruptive effects; Well-being

INTERVENTIONS. Medication administration; Medication management; Pain management; Comfort; Nutritional monitoring; Environmental management: Comfort; Biofeedback; Sleep enhancement; Guided imagery


Most patients can have their migraine headaches managed pharmacologically. Dietary modification may decrease symptoms; this includes reducing the intake of caffeinated beverages, monosodium glutamate, cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, citrus fruit, chocolate, and red wine.

Pharmacologic Highlights

Medication or

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