Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Altered nutrition: Less than body requirements related to decreased potassium intake, anorexia, nausea, vomiting

OUTCOMES. Nutritional status: Nutrient intake; Electrolyte and acid-base balance; Cardiac pump effectiveness; Knowledge: Medication and treatment procedures

INTERVENTIONS. Electrolyte management: Hypokalemia; Nutrition management; Nutrition monitoring; Vital signs monitoring; Medication management; Venous access devices maintenance; Teaching: Individual

H PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Collaborative

To prevent hypokalemia, most physicians closely monitor serum potassium levels and prescribe supplements to those patients who are in the high-risk categories. Most patients who develop hypokalemia are placed on either oral or parenteral potassium supplements. Potassium is not

486 Hypokalemia administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously because potassium is a profound tissue irritant. Parenteral potassium should be administered with extreme caution. Potassium solutions irritate veins and can cause a chemical phlebitis.

Foods high in potassium can help restore potassium levels, as well as prevent further potassium loss. Collaboration between the nurse and a registered dietitian can ensure accurate teaching on dietary maintenance of potassium levels. Common foods high in potassium are bananas, cantaloupe, raisins, skim milk, avocados, mushrooms, potatoes, spinach, and tomatoes.

Pharmacologic

Highlights

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