Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Sensory-perceptual alterations (visual and auditory) related to inflammation and damage of ocular nerves and tissues and the CNS

OUTCOMES. Cognitive ability; Distorted thought process; Cognitive orientation; Neurological status; Rest; Anxiety control

INTERVENTIONS. Cognitive stimulation; Surveillance: Safety; Sleep enhancement; Reality orientation; Fall prevention; Neurological monitoring; Medication management; Communication enhancement: Hearing deficit; Emotional support

U PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Collaborative

The challenge in treating toxoplasmosis is that T. gondii protozoa are resistant to many antimicrobial agents, and they typically invade tissue that is difficult for many drugs to reach. The ideal duration for pharmacotherapy has not been established. Acute acquired toxoplasmosis should be treated only if the patient is extremely symptomatic or severely immunodeficient. The duration of treatment for immunosuppressed patients depends largely on the duration of the immuno-compromised state. Patients with permanent immunocompromised states, such as AIDS patients, usually need prophylactic antitoxoplasmosis therapy for the rest of their lives. Because the immune-inflammatory response is thought to be responsible for the pathological processes in ocular toxoplasmosis, glucocorticoid steroids may be ordered in some situations. Steroids have been shown to decrease retinochoroiditis and improve vision but cause further decreased immune function in the immunocompromised patient.

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