Over the past 15 years many studies have found cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) effective in reducing PTSD, making CBT the most empirically validated approach among the psychosocial treatments for PTSD (for reviews, see Foa & Meadows, 1997; Foa & Rothbaum, 1998; Harvey, Bryant, & Tarrier, 2003). The CBT programs that have been empirically examined include prolonged exposure (PE), stress inoculation training (SIT), cognitive therapy (CT), and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). There are more studies demonstrating the efficacy of exposure therapy (including PE) than of any other treatment for PTSD (Foa & Rothbaum, 1998; Rothbaum, Meadows, Resick, & Foy, 2000), and PE has been shown effective in treating PTSD associated with a wide variety of traumas. When directly compared, PE produces results as good as or better than other CBT approaches (CT, SIT, EMDR) or PE combined with components of the other treatments (see discussion below).
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