Foa, Steketee, and Rothbaum (1989) proposed that a traumatic event is represented in memory as a fear structure that is characterized by a large number of harmless stimulus elements erroneously associated with the meaning of danger. These erroneous associations are reflected in the perception of the world as entirely dangerous. In a further development of emotional theory for PTSD, Foa and Jaycox (1999) suggested that the physiological and behavioral responses that occurred during and after the event, including the PTSD symptoms themselves, are interpreted as signs of personal incompetence, leading survivors to the erroneous perception about themselves as entirely incompetent. The erroneous cognitions about the world and the self underlie PTSD symptoms, which in turn reinforce the erroneous cognitions in a vicious cycle (for a more detailed discussion, see Foa & Rothbaum, 1998). PTSD symptoms are further maintained by cognitive and behavioral avoidance strategies that prevent exposure to corrective information and the incorporation of such information into fear structure. For example, by avoiding safe reminders of the trauma, the person does not have the opportunity disconfirm the belief that feared consequences will occur (e.g., being assaulted again, not being able to cope with the distress produced by the situation). Overcoming the tendency to avoid trauma-related stimuli and countering the erroneous cognitions are seen as critical mechanisms of natural recovery from trauma as well as recovery through therapy.
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Tips And Tricks For Relieving Anxiety... Fast Everyone feels anxious sometimes. Whether work is getting to us or we're simply having hard time managing all that we have to do, we can feel overwhelmed and worried that we might not be able to manage it all. When these feelings hit, we don't have to suffer. By taking some simple steps, you can begin to create a calmer attitude, one that not only helps you feel better, but one that allows you the chance to make better decisions about what you need to do next.