1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 History of Enzymology 2

1.1.2 Classification of Enzymes 2

1.1.3 Applied Enzymology 3

1.2 Enzymes: Sources and Production 3

1.2.1 Immobilized Enzymes 5

1.3 Enzymes Used for Analytical Purposes 6

1.3.1 Enzymes in Clinical Chemistry 6

1.3.2 Enzymes Used in Immunoassay Systems 8

1.3.3 Enzyme-Based Biosensors 8

1.4 Enzymes Used for Industrial Purposes 10

1.4.1 Detergent Proteases 10

1.4.2 The Application of Proteases in the Food and Drink Industry 11

1.4.3 Additional Applications of Proteases 12

1.4.4 Carbohydrases and Additional Industrial Enzymes 12

1.5 The Future of Industrial Enzymes 14

References 14

1.1 Introduction

Several thousand enzymes have been identified to date. This group of biomolecules first found industrial application in the early 1900s. Today, a myriad enzymes are employed for industrial, analytical, and therapeutic purposes [1-3]. While the following sections of this book focus specifically upon therapeutic uses of enzymes, this chapter provides a summary overview of their additional applied uses, offering a framework for the interested reader to better understand the entire application range of these versatile biomolecules.

Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the rate of biochemical reactions by several orders of magnitude (see Table 1.1) and function under relatively mild conditions of pH and temperature [4]. With the exception of a small group of catalytic RNA molecules [5], all enzymes are protein-based. They are globular proteins, typically soluble

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