Nase I in NonCF Respiratory Diseases

Highly viscoelastic lung mucus causes many other respiratory disorders like atelectasis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), giving rise to suffering and even morbidity. Under these conditions, the high viscidity of the lung secretions is often also due to high DNA concentrations, a result of a neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. Consequently, rhDNase I may be of benefit to these patients. However, unlike the situation in CF, only a few controlled clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of rhDNase I in these non-CF respiratory diseases. Most of the evidence of benefits are based on case reports or the experience of small groups of patients [124]. In summary, rhDNase I has been applied with success in the treatment of atelectasis [125-131], PCD [132,133], bronchiolitis [134], and empyema thoracis [135]. On the other hand, non-CF patients with bronchiectasis or bronchitis do not benefit from rhDNase I [136-139].

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