Pancreatic enzymes are essential for digestion of macromolecules such as protein, fats, and carbohydrates in the small intestine. Malabsorption along with altered upper gastrointestinal secretory and endocrine function are implicated in untreated pancreatic exocrine insufficiency [178]. Pancreatic enzymes are administered to restore nutrient digestion, especially fat absorption (steatorrhea) and proper intestinal function in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Sufficient enzymatic activity must be delivered into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with a meal for the digestive enzymes to be effective. Pancreatic enzyme supplementation may be deemed necessary in conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, gastric surgery, and cystic fibrosis [179]. Currently, patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are treated with pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres taken with each meal [180]. Pancreatin is a pancreatic enzyme preparation derived from table 13.2

Commercial Lactase Digestive Supplements table 13.2

Commercial Lactase Digestive Supplements


Source of Lactase



Aspergillus oryzae



Aspergillus oryzae and

Enteric coated capsule

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