Zone

Cricoid cartilai

Cricoid cartilai

Neck zones for trauma. (From ¡Vlarkovchick V, Pons P: Emergency Medicine Secrets, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Haniey & Baltus, 1999, with permission,)

h Zone ]': base of the neck (from 2 cm above the clavicles to the level of the clavicles) a Zone II: midcervical region (2 cm above the clavicle to the angle of the mandible)

■ Zone III: the angle of the mandible to the base of the skull

■ With zone 1 and III injuries, do an arteriogram before going to the operating room,

■ Wi th zone II injuries, proceed to (he operating room for surgical exploration, (do not do an arteriogram first).

■ In the presence of obvious bleeding or a rapidly expanding hematoma, proceed directly to the operating room, no matter where the injury is.

4. Choking: leave choking patients alone if they are speaking, coughing, or breathing. If they stop doing all three, do the Heimlich maneuver.

5. Tooth avulsion: put the tooth back in place with no cleaning (or rinse it only in saline), and stabilize as soon as possible. The sooner this procedure is done, the better the prognosis for salvage of the tooth.

Conjunctivitis causes conjunctival vessel hyperemia. The three main causes are allergic (common), viral (common), and bacterial (rare):

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