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Electronics Repair Manuals

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Cancer and somatic evolution

Fig. 1.2 Schematic diagram of crypts in the colon. Fig. 1.4 Schematic diagram explaining the concept of genetic instability, (a) Small scale instabilities, such as MSI, involve subtle sequence changes. With MSI, mismatch repair genes are defect and this leads to copying mistakes in repeat sequences, (b) Chromosomal instability involves gross chromosomal changes, such as loss of chromosomes. Fig. 1.4 Schematic diagram explaining the concept of genetic instability, (a) Small scale instabilities, such as MSI, involve subtle sequence changes. With MSI, mismatch repair genes are defect and this leads to copying mistakes in repeat sequences, (b) Chromosomal instability involves gross chromosomal changes, such as loss of chromosomes.

Is the Responding Tissue Unique The Concept of Competence

Schematic diagram indicating the time course and parameters of otic placode induction in the chick embryo, as described in Groves and Bronner-Fraser (2000). The figure shows how much of the embryonic ectoderm is initially competent to form the otic placode, with this competence decreasing over time. Local inductive signals specify the otic placode, which gradually becomes committed to a placode fate. Figure 2.1. Schematic diagram indicating the time course and parameters of otic placode induction in the chick embryo, as described in Groves and Bronner-Fraser (2000). The figure shows how much of the embryonic ectoderm is initially competent to form the otic placode, with this competence decreasing over time. Local inductive signals specify the otic placode, which gradually becomes committed to a placode fate.

Fabrication Of Fluidic Structure

Figure 3.1 Schematic diagrams showing the fabrication process for a simple mi-crofluidic channel. Resist is spin-coated on a SiO2 substrate. The resist is then patterned with photolithography or electron beam lithography. Wet or reactive ion etching is used to transfer the pattern into the SiO2 and the resist is removed. Finally, a SiO2 cover is bonded to the SiO2 substrate to encapsulate the channels. Figure 3.1 Schematic diagrams showing the fabrication process for a simple mi-crofluidic channel. Resist is spin-coated on a SiO2 substrate. The resist is then patterned with photolithography or electron beam lithography. Wet or reactive ion etching is used to transfer the pattern into the SiO2 and the resist is removed. Finally, a SiO2 cover is bonded to the SiO2 substrate to encapsulate the channels. Figure 3.3 A schematic diagram of the fabrication process used to produce the high aspect ratio nanopillars shown in the lower scanning electron micrographs (reprinted with permission...

The Control of P and Q with Symmetric and Asymmetric Cell Divisions

A schematic diagram depicting the influences in the ventricular zone that could affect lineage size in a single cell cycle. For a cluster of cells present at the beginning of G1 (in this example eight cells are shown) some cells could continue to proliferate (P), leave the proliferative population (Q), die (or lose the marker) in either the proliferative (D, VZ cell in gray with dashed lines) or postproliferative compartment (D, CP cell in gray with dashed lines), or move tangentially within the proliferative population (T). Abbreviations M, marginal zone CP, cortical plate IZ, intermediate zone VZ, ventricular zone V, lateral ventricle. FIGURE 12. A schematic diagram depicting the influences in the ventricular zone that could affect lineage size in a single cell cycle. For a cluster of cells present at the beginning of G1 (in this example eight cells are shown) some cells could continue to proliferate (P), leave the proliferative population (Q), die (or lose the marker) in...

Photobleaching Measurements of Diffusion in Cell Membranes and Aqueous Cell Compartments

Developing new methods and instrumentation. The classic FRAP method (Axelrod et al., 1976) and derived techniques such as pattern photobleaching (Smith and McConnell, 1978 Miehlich and Gaub, 1993), scanning microphotolysis (Kubitschek et al., 1994 Wedekind et al., 1994), video FRAP (Tsay and Jacobson, 1991), total internal-reflection FRAP (Thompson et al., 1981 Swaminathan et al., 1996 McKiernan et al., 1997), continuous fluorescence microphotolysis (Peters and Beck, 1983 Dietrich et al., 1997), photoactivation of fluorescence (McGrath et al., 1998a), and microsecond FRAP (Kao and Verkman, 1996 Seksek et al., 1997) are based on creating a gradient of the distribution of fluorochrome-labeled components in a predetermined region. The diffusion characteristics of the component(s) are extracted from the decay of dissipation of the concentration gradient. The majority of these techniques require dedicated instrumentation. A schematic diagram of a conventional FRAP instrument is shown in...

Immunoenzymetric Assay of Mouse and Human Cytokines Using NIPLabeled Anti Cytokine Antibodies

Figure 6.20.1 Schematic diagram of a general immunoenzymetric assay for cytokines. Assay uses a pair of anti-cytokine antibodies a coating antibody bound to a microtiter plate and a detecting antibody derivatized with the hapten NIP each of which recognizes a spatially distinct epitope on the cytokine molecule. The NIP-labeled antibody is then detected using a horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-conjugated anti-NIP antibody, which is in turn visualized using a chromogenic substrate. Figure 6.20.1 Schematic diagram of a general immunoenzymetric assay for cytokines. Assay uses a pair of anti-cytokine antibodies a coating antibody bound to a microtiter plate and a detecting antibody derivatized with the hapten NIP each of which recognizes a spatially distinct epitope on the cytokine molecule. The NIP-labeled antibody is then detected using a horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-conjugated anti-NIP antibody, which is in turn visualized using a chromogenic substrate.

Singleended Biopotential Amplifier Arrays

Each biopotential amplification channel features high-impedance ESD-protected inputs, current limiting, and defibrillation protection. Individual shield drives are used to protect each input lead from external noise. Each channel provides a fixed gain of 1000 within a fixed (-3-dB) bandpass of 0.2 to 100 Hz. The chief advantage of the single-ended configuration is its simplicity, but this comes at the cost of lacking high immunity to common-mode signals. Because of this, single-ended biopotential amplifiers are usually found in equipment that incorporates other ways of suppressing common-mode signals. In this circuit, an onboard adjustable 50 60-Hz notch filter is connected at the output of each channel. The schematic diagram of Figure 1.17 shows how each channel

Prevention of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Figure 8 Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, showing the site of formation of superoxide (O2) and nitric oxide ('NO). These two radicals interact to form peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). The rate constant for this reaction is reported to be 1.6 x 1010M -1 s-1, as reported by Nauser and Koppenol.68 This is faster than the frequently reported rate constant for the dismutation of superoxide by the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which is only 1.4 x 109M-1 sc-1. Thus the formation of peroxynitrite is favored. Figure 8 Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, showing the site of formation of superoxide (O2) and nitric oxide ('NO). These two radicals interact to form peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). The rate constant for this reaction is reported to be 1.6 x 1010M -1 s-1, as reported by Nauser and Koppenol.68 This is faster than the frequently reported rate constant for the dismutation of superoxide by the mitochondrial...

Anti Inflammatory Strategies

Figure 11 Schematic diagram showing the key inflammatory events that take place in the injured CNS that either amplify secondary injury or are involved in repair mechanisms. Figure 11 Schematic diagram showing the key inflammatory events that take place in the injured CNS that either amplify secondary injury or are involved in repair mechanisms.

Background Information

Figure 12.4.8 Schematic diagram showing results that could be obtained for a hypothetical protein with two N-linked glycosylation sites as it moves through the Golgi complex. Assume that the protein has been biosynthetically labeled with an amino acid precursor (such as 35S Met) for 10 min and chased in the absence of label for 45 min and 120 min. The protein is then precipitated with a specific antibody. At each time point, equal amounts of the sample are analyzed by flourography after one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, either without any digestion (control C) or following digestion with endo H (H), endo D (D), endo F2 (F2), PNGase F (PNG), or sialidase (Sia). Oligosaccharide structures consistent with the banding patterns are shown below the schematic gel pattern. Figure 12.4.8 Schematic diagram showing results that could be obtained for a hypothetical protein with two N-linked glycosylation sites as it moves through the Golgi complex. Assume that the protein has been biosynthetically...

Biological Neural Nets

A neuron has four main structural components 1 - 2 the dendrites, the cell body, the axon and the synapse. The dendrites act as receptors, thereby receiving signals from several neighborhood neurons and passing these on to a little thick fiber, called dendron. In other words, dendrites are the free terminals of dendrons. The received signals collected at different dendrons are processed within the cell body and the resulting signal is transferred through a long fiber named axon. At the other end of the axon, there exists an inhibiting unit called synapse. This unit controls the flow of neuronal current from the originating neuron to receiving dendrites of neighborhood neurons. A schematic diagram, depicting the above concept, is presented in fig.14.1.

Experimental evidence for conditional backpropagation

Summary of the mechanism underlying high-frequency burst generation in pyramidal cells in vitro. a) Schematic diagram of a pyramidal cell with a narrow spike recorded in the soma (1). The somatic spike is actively propagated back into the apical dendrite where a much broader version of the same spike can be recorded (2). Current sourcing from the dendrite back into the soma causes a DAP (3). b) Top Oscillatory burst discharge recorded in the soma of a pyramidal cell with 0.74 nA depolarizing current injection. Middle and bottom Somatic and dendritic spike burst recorded separately in two different cells. The time scales are adjusted to allow alignment of spikes. Somatic spikes are truncated. As evident from the dendritic recording, spike repolarization slows down in the course of a burst allowing the DAP at the soma to potentiate. Eventually, the DAP reaches threshold and causes a high-frequency spike doublet. Since the dendritic refractory period is longer than the somatic one, the...

The Output from the Ventricular Zone

Cell Cycle Ventricular Zone

The cell cycle in the ventricular zone of the developing CNS This schematic diagram illustrates the interkinetic movement of the nuclei of the cells comprising the proliferative ventricular epithelium of the ventricular zone (VZ). With each pass through the cell cycle the nucleus of a single cell moves from its starting position at the ventricular surface at the beginning of G1 to the border of the VZ where it enters S. During G2, the nucleus again moves down to the ventricular surface where it enters M and divides to form two cells. With each pass through the cell cycle some postmitotic neurons are produced. The postmitotic neurons migrate away from the VZ to produce the structures of the adult brain (in this case, the cerebral neocortex). During the production of the neocortex in the mouse, the cell cycle lengthens with each cell cycle and there are a total of 11 cell cycles. FIGURE 6. The cell cycle in the ventricular zone of the developing CNS This schematic diagram...

The Plumbing Of Long Bones

Bone Lamellae Lacunae And Trabeculae

Schematic diagram showing the vascular arrangement in the long bone diaphysis. Modified from Figure 4 of E.A. Williams, R. H. Fitzgerald, and P.J.Kelly, Microcirculation of Bone, in The physiology and pharmacology of the microcirculation, Vol. 2, Academic Press, (1984). Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing the vascular arrangement in the long bone diaphysis. Modified from Figure 4 of E.A. Williams, R. H. Fitzgerald, and P.J.Kelly, Microcirculation of Bone, in The physiology and pharmacology of the microcirculation, Vol. 2, Academic Press, (1984).

Direct Manometric Determination of Vapor unit a24 Pressure

Diagram Pressure Chemistry

The water activity of food samples can be estimated by direct measurement of the partial vapor pressure of water using a manometer. A simple schematic diagram is shown in Figure A2.4.1. A sample of unknown water activity is placed in the sample flask and sealed onto the apparatus. The air space in the apparatus is evacuated with the sample flask excluded from the system. The sample flask is connected with the evacuated air space and the space in the sample flask is evacuated. The stopcock across the manometer is closed and temperatures are read. The equilibrium manometer reading is recorded (ft1). The stopcock over the sample is closed and the air space is connected with the desiccant flask. The manometer reading in the legs is read to give h2. The water activity of the sample is then calculated (Labuza et al., 1976) as Figure A2.4.1 Schematic diagram of a thermostatted vapor pressure manometer apparatus. Reprinted from Rizvi (1995) with permission from Marcel Dekker.

The Subventricular Zone

Medial Ganglionic Eminence Sagittal

Schematic diagrams of the proportions of the changes in the proportions of symmetric non-terminal (S NT), symmetric-terminal (S T) and asymmetric cell divisions as a function of changes in P (abscissa) during the neuronogenetic interval. At any given time the sum of the proportions of the 3 types of cell divisions adds up to 1.0 (ordinate). The changes shown are the changes in the 3 types of cell divisions for the 3 different models developed for this study. For a detailed explanation of the assumptions of each model, see the text. FIGURE 13. Schematic diagrams of the proportions of the changes in the proportions of symmetric non-terminal (S NT), symmetric-terminal (S T) and asymmetric cell divisions as a function of changes in P (abscissa) during the neuronogenetic interval. At any given time the sum of the proportions of the 3 types of cell divisions adds up to 1.0 (ordinate). The changes shown are the changes in the 3 types of cell divisions for the 3 different models...

Corroborative SRP Studies

Schematic diagram of synchronized retroperfusion experimental system. Arterial blood is shunted from the brachial artery into the great cardiac vein and the regional anterior in-terventricular (AI) coronary vein that adjoins the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The latter is occluded by means of an

Biochemical Cell Biological Properties of RoSSA

The structure of the Ro ribonucleoprotein (RoRNP) particle (schematic diagram). In most higher eukaryotic cells, the Ro60 kDa protein is complexed with one of several small cytoplasmic RNAs known as Y RNAs. The Y RNA is folded into a structure containing internal loops and a long stem formed by base pairing the 5' and 3' ends. The 3' end of Y RNA is stably associated with the La protein, whereas the association of Ro52, nucleolin, RoBPI, and calreticulin is conditional Fig. 24.2. The structure of the Ro ribonucleoprotein (RoRNP) particle (schematic diagram). In most higher eukaryotic cells, the Ro60 kDa protein is complexed with one of several small cytoplasmic RNAs known as Y RNAs. The Y RNA is folded into a structure containing internal loops and a long stem formed by base pairing the 5' and 3' ends. The 3' end of Y RNA is stably associated with the La protein, whereas the association of Ro52, nucleolin, RoBPI, and calreticulin is conditional

Phenylthiocarbamyl Amino Acid Analysis

Waters markets a PicoTAG Work Station (Bidlingmeyer et al., 1986) designed after the manual sequencing and PTC-AAA station developed by Tarr (1986). Original workstation descriptions with schematic diagrams appear in the above articles, and photographs of workstations are also available (Kuhn and Crabb, 1986). The work area can be arranged according to individual preference. The vacuum argon flush system, 6 x 50-mm tubes, and 40-ml reaction vials with Mininert slide valves particularly facilitate manual acid hydrolysis and PTC derivatization protocols.

Hetgroup Identification

In addition, algorithms have been developed for matching fragments of molecules against fragments of the molecules in the PDB hetgroup dictionary (subgraph-subgraph isomorphism). A schematic diagram describing the logical flow of this process is shown in Figure 9.3. In short, graph representations for each of the chemical compounds present in the PDB archive are contained in an Oracle database, which is compiled into rapidly accessible binary files. The graph-matching utility allows a query hetgroup to be compared against the whole database of small molecules and individual precompiled compounds at a rate of 4000 reference compounds minute. The graph matching utility can automatically differentiate between different stereoisomers of compounds and renames the residues deposited to the PDB hetgroup identifier for that compound. For example, both a-D-mannose (hetgroup code MAN) and -D-mannose (hetgroup code BMA) are present in the PDB hetgroup dictionary (Figure 9.4) and occur in many...

Pendrins Function in the Thyroid

Thyroid Pendrin

Schematic diagram showing iodide transport within the thyrocyte. The Sodium-Iodide Symporter (NIS) pumps iodide into the cell against a concentration gradient. The cytosolic iodide must exit the cell to interact with thyroid peroxidase on the extracellular side of the apical membrane. This task is accomplished, at least in part, by pendrin. Fig. 5. Schematic diagram showing iodide transport within the thyrocyte. The Sodium-Iodide Symporter (NIS) pumps iodide into the cell against a concentration gradient. The cytosolic iodide must exit the cell to interact with thyroid peroxidase on the extracellular side of the apical membrane. This task is accomplished, at least in part, by pendrin.

Factor Analysis of Chronometric and Psychometric Variables Together

This is the most analytic method of looking at the relationship between the two classes of measurements. In terms of the number of RT measures (both direct and derived) obtained from several ECTs and the number of PTs, the factor analysis by Carroll (1991b) of the data from Kranzler and Jensen (1991), described in the previous section (p. 171), is probably the most revealing. Carroll performed Schmid-Leiman orthogonalized hierarchical factor analysis of these data, which comprised correlations among 27 chronometric and 11 psychometric variables. The hierarchical structure of the factor matrix is quite complex, but the main gist of it can be most easily explained in terms of the simplified schematic diagram shown in Table 9.2. Before doing the factor analysis, Carroll properly reflected all of the correlations between the chronometric and psychometric variables so that goodness of performance on both types of variables is represented by a positive (+) correlation between them. This...

Multidimensional Gating To Separate Overlapping Populations

Figure 10.4.2 (A) Schematic diagram depicting the relationship between two regions R1 and R2 in a single plane defined by parameters 1 and 2. Table 10.4.1 shows various logical combinations of R1 and R2 that can be used to identify specific regions herein. (B) Schematic diagram depicting similar relationships between R1 and R2 in a three-dimensional display. See color figure. Figure 10.4.2 (A) Schematic diagram depicting the relationship between two regions R1 and R2 in a single plane defined by parameters 1 and 2. Table 10.4.1 shows various logical combinations of R1 and R2 that can be used to identify specific regions herein. (B) Schematic diagram depicting similar relationships between R1 and R2 in a three-dimensional display. See color figure.

Retinal anatomy and physiology

Retinal Anatomy

Figure 11.3 Schematic diagram of the organization of the retina, highlighting the principal cells of the retina and the nomenclature of the neural retina. Light entering the eye passes through the entire neural retina before being transduced into electrical signals by the rod and cone photoreceptors of the outer neural layer. These signals are processed in a columnar fashion by the bipolar cells of the inner neural layer and the retinal ganglion cells of the ganglion cell layer as well as being processed horizontally by the horizontal and amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer. The axons of the retinal ganglion cells are collected together into the nerve fiber layer, which lies between the ganglion cells and the inner surface of the retina, or the epiretinal surface. (Adapted from Webvision. With permission.) Figure 11.3 Schematic diagram of the organization of the retina, highlighting the principal cells of the retina and the nomenclature of the neural retina. Light entering the...

Monitoring Metalloproteinase Activity Using Synthetic Fluorogenic Substrates

Figure 21.16.1 Schematic diagram of MMP hydrolysis of This MMP substrate contains a methoxycoumarin (MCA) fluorophore and a dinitrophenyl (Dnp) quencher located on opposite sides of the susceptible peptide bond, indicated by a tilde ( ). The excitation peak of the quencher overlaps with the emission peak of the fluorophore, allowing the quencher to absorb the energy from the fluorophore in a distance-dependent manner. This prevents fluorescence of the intact substrate by a process of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon hydrolysis of the susceptible peptide bond, the quencher and the fluorophore become physically separated and the fluorescence of the MCA group can be detected at 393 nm upon excitation at 325 nm.

Measurement of Water Activity by Electronic Sensors

Several instruments based on electronic sensors are commercially available for direct determination of water activity. This type of equipment is based on the measurement of the characteristic response of an electronic sensor in equilibrium with the air in a small chamber containing the sample in a plastic cup (usually with a volume of 15 ml). A schematic diagram of typical equipment is shown in Figure A2.5.1. Different types of sensor are commercially available (Rahman, 1995). Currently, most food laboratories are using sensor-type instruments, especially immobilized salt solution sensors. Figure A2.5.1 Schematic diagram of setup for water activity measurement by electronic sensor.

Molecular materials for electronics 1441 Plastic electronics

Figure 14.14 shows a schematic diagram for the possible structure of an organic thin-film FET. In this arrangement, the organic film is deposited in the final stages of FET fabrication. It is therefore not necessary for this layer to withstand any post deposition, chemical, and thermal processing. Figure 14.15 shows how a series of transistor devices can be made on the same silicon substrate incorporating different thicknesses of LB films. The silicon serves as the gate electrode, while silicon dioxide forms the insulator. Experimental data for such a device, using an organometallic complex as the semiconductive layer, are shown in Figure 14.16.41,42 The graph shows the dependence of the saturated source-drain current vs. gate bias voltage for a device incorporating a film consisting of 59 LB layers of the iodine-doped complex on top of the interdigitated source and drain electrodes.42 The slope Figure 14.14 Schematic diagram of a field effect transistor (FET) structure.

Wideband Biopotential Amplifier

The biopotential amplifier circuit described by the schematic diagrams of Figures 2.2 and 2.3 covers the complete frequency range of commonly recorded biopotentials with high CMR. In this circuit, a Burr-Brown INA110AG ICIA is dc-coupled to the electrodes via current-limiting resistors R22 and R23. Two Ohmic Instruments IS-1-3.3DP semiconductor

Figure

Schematic diagram outlining the general approach adopted to alter the amino acid (aa) sequence by site-directed mutagenesis. The DNA fragment encoding the wild-type (unaltered) protein of interest is cloned into a plasmid vector. An appropriate oligonucleotide (oligo) is designed, the ends of which are complementary to the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the gene, while the central portion of the oligo contains an altered nt sequence corresponding to the desired change in the protein (marked with a star). The dsDNA is denatured to make the template strand available for hybridization with the mutagenic oligo (Step 1). The addition of dNTPs, DNA polymerase, and DNA ligase enables DNA synthesis, forming closed circular molecules (Step 2). The mutated plasmid is selected, and the desired change is verified (by sequencing). The mutant plasmid is selected and transformed into a final host strain (Step 3), where large amounts of the mutant protein can be produced using standard recombinant...

Unknown Receptor

Figure 2 Schematic diagram of minimization approach to overlap of pharmacophoric groups (A with A' with A , B with B' with B , C with C' with C'') by introduction of constraints (springs) with intermolecular interactions ignored and only intramolecular interactions considered. Figure 2 Schematic diagram of minimization approach to overlap of pharmacophoric groups (A with A' with A , B with B' with B , C with C' with C'') by introduction of constraints (springs) with intermolecular interactions ignored and only intramolecular interactions considered.

Radiopharmaceuticals

Pinhole Collimator Bone Scan

Fig. 1.4 Schematic diagram showing inversion and magnification of pinhole image. D Diameter of detector or crystal, t thickness of detector, a collimator length or detector-to-aperture distance, d aperture-to-object distance, a acceptance angle Fig. 1.4 Schematic diagram showing inversion and magnification of pinhole image. D Diameter of detector or crystal, t thickness of detector, a collimator length or detector-to-aperture distance, d aperture-to-object distance, a acceptance angle

Scaffold Development

Pymol Interaction

Figure 10 Examples of cut-and-paste applications. (a) Schematic diagram of four-helix bundle with two iron-binding sites (adapted from 1JM0). (b) Model of active site with substrate interaction with diiron catalytic site (adapted from 1JM0). (c) Conversion of ribose-binding protein (C) into a biosensor for TNT that can discriminate TNB, 2, 4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT a biosensor that can discriminate L-lactate from D-lactate or pyruvate and a biosensor that can discriminate serotonin from tryptamine and tryptophan (Rendered using Pymol.). Figure 10 Examples of cut-and-paste applications. (a) Schematic diagram of four-helix bundle with two iron-binding sites (adapted from 1JM0). (b) Model of active site with substrate interaction with diiron catalytic site (adapted from 1JM0). (c) Conversion of ribose-binding protein (C) into a biosensor for TNT that can discriminate TNB, 2, 4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT a biosensor that can discriminate L-lactate from D-lactate or pyruvate and a biosensor that can...

DLpm1 RpK

Inverted Microscope Ray Diagram

For cells that normally adhere to surfaces, an elegant but technically challenging method to measure viscoelasticity is by attaching them at both top and bottom to glass surfaces that can be moved with respect to each other in compression, extension, or shear (Thoumine et al., 1999). A schematic diagram of such a system is shown in Fig. 2-6. Fig. 2-8. Schematic diagram of an optical trap. Fig. 2-8. Schematic diagram of an optical trap.

Info

Inset Schematic diagram of an immunoaffinity column. (a) 50- il disposable capillary micropipet. (b) Tubing Tygon S-54-HL Microbore, 0.05-in. i.d., or Tygon R-3603, Vi6-in. i.d. (softer tubing). (c) Female Luer fitting, white nylon (Value Plastics), Vi6 in. (d) Kontes Flex-column (Kontes Glass). (e) Barbed nipple connector, polypropylene, 3 32-in. top, Vi6-in. bottom (Value Plastics, Series AD). (f) Luer-Lok two-way stopcock (Kontes Glass).

D USP Type

Figure 7.3 shows a schematic diagram of USP Apparatus 4. This apparatus consists of a flow through cell into which the dosage form is placed. Dissolution medium is continually pumped through the flow cell and the eluent analyzed for drug content. This apparatus finds its greatest utility in the testing of poorly soluble drugs as sink conditions can be maintained by continually passing fresh dissolution fluid over the dosage unit. This apparatus finds more widespread use in Europe than elsewhere.

Figure 112

Schematic diagram outlining (A) the genomic organization of the human F9 gene. The exons (a-h) and introns are labeled according to the scheme proposed in 9 . (B) FIX mRNA transcribed from F9. (C) The 461-aa precursor FIX protein, with its seven structural domains. (D) The 415-aa mature hFIX, found circulating in plasma, consists of five structural domains. (E) The 385-aa activated FIX (FIXa) contains an N-terminal light chain (composed of the Gla and EGF 1 and 2 domains), and is linked via a disulfide bond to the C-terminal heavy chain (containing the catalytic domain). See text for further details. The diagram is not drawn to scale.

Neural Nets

Figure 7 A schematic diagram of an artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer (magenta) and a single output layer (green). QSAR applications would entail a number of numerical descriptors for each molecule, which correspond to the 'signals' sent to each node in the input layer (red). Weighted 'signals' are then sent to all the hidden layer nodes and a simple summed 'signal' reaches the output layer (green), essentially representing the neural net's estimate of activity. The error in prediction is then corrected by means of a nonlinear adjustment of the weights connecting all nodes. The process is repeated for each molecule, and cycled through all the molecules until a reasonably low prediction error is achieved. Figure 7 A schematic diagram of an artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer (magenta) and a single output layer (green). QSAR applications would entail a number of numerical descriptors for each molecule, which correspond to the 'signals' sent to each...

R34 1m

Figure 8.11 presents the schematic diagram of the sense amplifier circuit. The ventricular electrogram signal detected through the electrodes attached to the ventricle is attenuated by the voltage divider formed by resistor R7 and one of the resistors among R15, R16, R17, R18, or R19. Selection is performed via five-position switch SW1, which sets the sensitivity of the sense amplifier. Past the variable attenuator, the electrogram signal is amplified by op-amp IC1. The bandpass of this amplifier is 88 to 100 Hz. The high-pass cutoff is set by the RC filter formed by R8 and C5. The low-pass characteristics are given by the bandwidth of the PC4250 op-amp, which is a function of its bias set through resistor R12. Figure 8.12 presents the schematic diagram of the of the pacing pulse generator circuit. This circuit is able to generate pacing pulses with an amplitude of 3 or 6 V, depending on the state of the pacing amplitude selector switch. When inactive, the microcontroller sets the...

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