Pruritus Itch

Causes of Localized Pruritus

Body Region



Pediculosis capitis (lice), psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis


Contact dermatitis (axillae, waistline), erythrasma (axillae), pediculosis corporis, psoriasis, scabies, seborrheic dermatitis (chest), seborrheic keratoses, urticaria


Candida, contact dermatitis, erythrasma, pediculosis pubis, scabies, tinea cruris

Anal region

Candidiasis, contact dermatitis, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, pinworms, psoriasis, tinea cruris


Contact dermatitis, eczema (atopic, dyshidrotic), scabies


Atopic dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis (knees), lichen simplex chronicus (malleoli), nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis


Contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, pitted keratolysis, tinea pedis

Causes of Generalized Pruritus

Body Region


Skin diseases

Contact dermatitis; dermatitis herpetiformis; eczema—atopic, nummular, bullous pemphigoid, mycosis fungoides, psoriasis, PUPPP, urticaria, xerosis

Endocrine disorders

Carcinoid syndrome, diabetes, hypo- & hyperthyroidism

(Continued text on following page)

Causes of Generalized Pruritus (Continued)

Body Region


Infectious diseases

Hepatitis C, HIV, pediculosis, scabies

Psychiatric disease

Anxiety, delusions of parasitosis, depression

Systemic disease

Chronic renal failure, drugs (medicine, drugs of addiction/abuse), hemochromatosis, hepatic cholestasis, pregnancy (e.g., cholestasis of pregnancy), primary biliary cirrhosis

Hematopoietic disorders

Hodgkin's disease, iron deficiency, anemia, lymphoma, polycythemia rubra vera

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Skin Manifestations of Systemic Disease

Skin Manifestations of Chronic Renal Failure

Skin Manifestations of Chronic Renal Failure

Changes in skin pigmentation: Bruising, hyperpigmented palms & soles, pallor, photodistributed or diffuse hyperpigmentation, uremic frost, yellow tinge

Infections: Onychomycosis, tinea pedis

Nail changes: Half-and-half nails, pale nails, splinter hemorrhages



Keratotic palmoplantar pits

Perforating disorders: Kyrle disease, reactive perforating collagenosis

Calcinosis cutis

Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases

Acromegaly: Acanthosis nigricans, soft tissue hypertrophy, seborrheic dermatitis Addison's disease: Increased skin pigmentation Cushing's syndrome: Acanthosis nigricans, acne, fat maldistribution (e.g., "Buffalo hump"), hirsutism, ruddy skin with telangiectasia, striae, thin & atrophic skin

Diabetes: Acanthosis nigricans, bullous diabeticorum, diabetic dermopathy, foot ulcers, fungal & bacterial skin infections, granuloma annulare (controversial), necrobiosis lipoidica (diabeticorum), pruritus, scleredema, skin tags, yellow skin & nails Hyperthyroidism: Fine hair, hair loss, hyperhidrosis, onycholysis, pretibial myxedema, pruritus, warm smooth skin Hypothyroidism: brittle nails, broken hair, coarse hair, diffuse hair loss, loss of outer third of eyebrow, pruritus, thickened yellow skin, xeroderma

Skin Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Diseases

Acrodermatitis enteropathica: Abnormality in zinc absorption Dermatitis herpetiformis: Gluten-sensitive enteropathy Eczema (flexural): Malabsorption, mild zinc deficiency Gardner's syndrome: Large intestinal polyps

Liver disease, chronic: Dilated abdominal wall veins, gynecomastia, jaundice, loss of body hair, palmar erythema, peripheral edema, purpura, spider angiomas, Perineal ulceration, sinus tracts: Crohn's disease Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Small intestine polyps Pyoderma gangrenosum: Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis

Skin Manifestations of Other Systemic Diseases

Hyperlipidemia: Xanthomas — tendinous, tuberous, eruptive Neurofibromatosis: Café au lait macules, freckling (axillary, inguinal; "Crowe's sign"), multiple cutaneous neurofibromas Pellagra (nicotinic acid deficiency): 3Ds — dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea; erythema following sun exposure Porphyria: Blister formation, hypertrichosis, milia, photosensitivity, pigmentation, skin fragility Sarcoidosis: Blue-red subcutaneous nodules, lupus pernio, sarcoid in scar

Scurvy: Bleeding gums, coiled hairs, perifollicular purpura, poor wound healing

Tuberous sclerosis: Confetti macules, enamel pits, facial angio-fibromas, forehead plaque, gingival fibromas, hypomelanotic macules, periungual fibromas, Shagreen patch

Nail plate

Distal nail fold

Anterior ligament

Nail bed Cuticle Eponychium

Nail plate

Periungual Pigmentation Nail


Distal edge of nail plate

Cuticle Eponychium

Nail matrix

Posterior ligament

Lateral nail fold


Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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  • trahand
    Where is the ligament of the nail?
    7 years ago

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