Ways To Develop Your Self Esteem

Confident Creatures

Confident Creatures

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Abstinence Violation Effect AVE

Part of Marlatt and Gordon's 1985 model of the relapse process involving a cognitive-emotional reaction that includes (a) guilt from relapsing and engaging in an undesired behavior (e.g., smoking) after quitting smoking or changing the behavior (e.g., smoking cessation), which is discrepant from the new self-image (e.g., a nonsmoker) and (b) an attribution that the relapse episode was due to personal weakness. This usually results in perceptions of decreased self-efficacy in considering readopting a desired health behavior (Cormier, 2002 Parks, Anderson, & Marlatt, 2001 Shiffman et al., 1996). In addition to smoking, AVE can be experienced among binge eaters (Grilo & Shiffman, 1994) and people with other addictive disorders. See Relapse Prevention.

Anticipated Challenges And Achievements

In this vein, efforts to determine predictors of treatment response to CBT for trauma may help address diagnostic dilemmas and ultimately improve treatment planning and outcomes. We recommend that future studies consider predictors beyond those that have been traditionally investigated (e.g., PTSD severity, anger, substance abuse), and develop theoretically driven models that can be tested. Following from our recommendations about broadening the range of trauma symptoms to consider, interpersonal functioning, social support, affective regulation, and self-efficacy might be considered. Biological markers may even be useful to consider in the future, as the psychobiological findings become more robust and are shown to correspond with CBT treatment response.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Teach the patient how to maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Explore non-food-related coping mechanisms and ways to have decreased association between food and emotions. Explore ways to recognize maladaptive coping behaviors and stressors that precipitate anxiety. Teach the patient strategies to increase self-esteem and to maintain a realistic perception of body image. Explore ways to maintain increased independence and age-appropriate behaviors.

Stress Management And Psychiatric Interventions

Stress management techniques such as relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skills training may reduce negative mood states in HIV-positive persons by lowering physical tension and increasing self-efficacy (Antoni, 2003a). These affective changes are thought to be accompanied by an improved ability to regulate peripheral catecholamines and cortisol via decreases in ANS activation and improved regulation of the HPA axis, respectively. Neuroendocrine regulation may be associated with a partial normalization of immune system functions, providing more efficient surveillance of pathogens such as latent viruses that may increase HIV replication and enhance vulnerability to opportunistic infections or neoplasias. This normalization of stress-associated immune system decrements may ultimately forestall increases in viral load and the manifestation of clinical symptoms over extended periods. A relatively small number of controlled trials have examined the effects of...

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Work with the patient to evaluate the effectiveness of antidepressant or antianxiety medications, as well as to explore ways to identify situations that precede depression and anxiety. Work with the dietitian to ensure that the patient is educated about appropriate nutrition and dietary intake. Encourage the patient to participate in individual, family, and group sessions to help the patient develop ways to express feelings, handle anger, enhance self-esteem, explore career choices, and develop sexual identity and assertiveness skills.

Jack L Gluckman and Tapan A Padhya

Advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck presents an enormous challenge to the oncologist. This devastating disease is associated with pain, disfigurement, loss of essential bodily functions, and a tremendous sense of loss of self-image and self-esteem. These events, occurring in patients who usually already suffer from significant comorbidity by virtue of their longstanding self-abuse from excess alcohol and tobacco usage, result in an enormously fragile human being in desperate need of kind and compassionate care from the health care provider.

Emotional reasoning you reason based on how you feel

After session 10 of CPT, clients are asked, in addition to completing worksheets on esteem, to practice giving and receiving compliments and to do at least one nice thing for themselves each day. These exercises serve the multiple purposes of helping clients work on esteem building, reconnect with other people, and think about the subject of esteem. Sam came into session 11 stating that doing nice things for himself helped his depression but that he tended to dismiss compliments as untrue. After challenging the validity of his assumptions about compliments and reviewing other self-esteem worksheets, the focus of treatment shifted to intimacy. He talked about discussions he had had with his father and described how passive he was in his relationship with his fianc e. In session 12 Sam was instructed to complete worksheets on intimacy, continue to practice giving and receiving compliments, continue to do nice things for himself, and finally to rewrite his Impact Statement about what the...

Reference and reading list

Mudde, V.J. Strecher, Planned health education and the role of self-efficacy Dutch research. Health Education Research 6, 231-238. 225-233, 1991. Vries, H. de, M. Dijkstra, P. Kuhlman, Self-efficacy the third factor besides attitude and subjective norm as a predictor of behavioral intentions, in Health Education Research 3, 85-94, 1988.

Pharmacologic Highlights

In body image, sexuality, and self-esteem. Let the patient know that many of the body changes are reversible with treatment this information allows the patient to focus on setting goals. Include the patient's partner in all education. Patient and family teaching occurs throughout the patient's hospitalization and after discharge. Provide information about patient care and activity restrictions. Explanation of all diagnostic tests and their findings, as well as the treatment plan, are important. The patient and family often require time to consider treatment options. As time progresses, the patient and family need information about the disease process and lifelong management with medication and diet changes.

Gender Ethnicracial And Life Span Considerations

The need for daily management with medications, diet, and exercise repeatedly reminds the individual of the illness. In addition, the reality of a long-term illness may affect the individual's view of herself or himself, resulting in lower self-esteem. Young people with type 1 DM may have trouble managing developmental tasks and a chronic disease simultaneously. Parents may become overprotective, and children may have delayed emotional maturation.

What is quality of life

Health-related QL is complex and, as with overall QL, a single definition of the term remains elusive, although clearly it covers the impact of disease and treatment on physical status (symptoms and toxicity), psychological status (well-being, distress, self-esteem), functional status (self-care, shopping, work) and social functioning (relationships).

Esthetic Requirements

The provisional is often used as a guide to achieving optimum esthetics in the definitive restoration. In complete denture prosthodontics, it is customary to have a wax try-in so the patient can respond to the dentist's esthetic interpretation before the denture is processed. Many dentists consider this essential because of the frequency of patient requests for changes and the ease with which such changes can be made. When fixed prosthodon-tics is being performed in the anterior oral cavity, it greatly influences appearance the patient should be given an opportunity to voice an opinion. Beauty and personal appearance are highly subjective and difficult to communicate verbally, and a facsimile prosthesis can play a vital role in the patient's consideration of esthetics and the impact that the prosthesis will have on self-image. Obtaining the opinions of others whose judgment is valued is also important. An accurate provisional is a practical way of obtaining specific feedback for the...

Hopelessness Depression

Origins of Vulnerability in the Hopelessness Model. Rose and Abram-son (1992) and Gibb, Alloy, Abramson, and Marx (2003) suggested several possible developmental factors that may underlie hopelessness theory. Specifically, they argued that children who experience negative events such as maltreatment attempt to find the causes, consequences, and meaning of these events. They further noted that young children evidence a tendency to make internal attributions for all events, including negative events thus these children tend to see themselves as the cause of maltreatment. In some situations, the variables involved in this process precipitate the development of the negative attributional style that produces risk for depression. For example, the occurrence of negative events that are internalized affects the child's self-concept and, in so doing, may lead to broad tendencies to internalize negative events. These attributional tendencies alone, however, are insufficient to lead to the...

Parent Child Bonding and Attachment

Several studies have assessed this theme. For example, a number of the studies examining the impact of parental interactions on depression and cognition have assessed the recall of certain kinds of interactions as they pertain to possible cognitive vulnerability. Two types of interactions that have been of particular interest to theorists and researchers are parental care and parental overprotection. Parker (1979, 1983) suggested that low levels of parental care (defined as either neglect or by overt rejection) lead to future cognitive vulnerability by disrupting the child's self-esteem. In contrast to low levels of expressed care, overprotectiveness is thought to operate on vulnerability because the parent is so anxious or intrusive that a genuine caring relationship cannot be established with the child.

Cognitive Vulnerability Factors In High Risk Children

Garber and Flynn (2001a) assessed perceptions of self-worth, attri-butional style, and hopelessness in the children of depressed mothers. They reported that maternal depression was related to all three of these negative cognitions, and beyond maternal depression, low maternal care was associated with limited child self-worth. Children's attributional style also was found to mirror maternal attributions for child-related events that is, children made the same types of attributions for child-related events as did their mothers.

Studies in MS and Other Conditions

Few studies have specifically evaluated massage therapy in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In a study reported in 1998, 24 people with MS who received massage therapy were compared with those who did not (1). In this small study, massage therapy was associated with multiple benefits, including increased self-esteem, improved social functioning, and reduced anxiety and depression. In addition, those who received massage had better self-perception of their bodies and the progression of their disease. Another small trial found that slow, stroking massage movements over the spine were associated with improvement in anxiety and in the electrophysiologic measures of muscle stiffness (2). A small preliminary study of two people with MS found that massage along with aromatherapy was associated with improvements in mobility, personal hygiene, and dressing ability (3). In addition to its effects on specific symptoms, massage also may have a beneficial effect on self-esteem and overall...

Empirical Outcomes Of Cttrg

CT-TRG is a central feature of cognitive trauma therapy (CTT), a highly psy-choeducational intervention for the treatment of PTSD, depression, and guilt. The efficacy of CTT has been evaluated in two treatment-outcome studies with samples of PTSD-suffering battered women (Kubany et al., 2003, 2004). In both studies, CT-TRG (which was conducted in the larger context of CTT) resulted in quite significant reductions in guilt, as assessed by the TRGI. The studies also found that these reductions in guilt were associated with significant reductions in PTSD and depression and quite significant increases in self-esteem. For example, in the first treatment-outcome study (Kubany et al., 2003), 30 of 32 women who completed CTT (94 ) were PTSD negative at the end of treatment, and 29 of these women (88 ) had scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) of 10 or less showing an absence of depression. There is also some case-study-based evidence for the efficacy of CT-TRG. For example, as...

Psychosocial Impact Of Assistive Devices Scale

The Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) is a 26-item, self-rating questionnaire designed to measure user perceptions of how assistive devices affect quality of life. It is intended to be a generic measure, applicable to virtually all forms of AT. The PIADS describes user perceptions along three dimensions Adaptability (the enabling and liberating effects of a device) Competence (the impacts of a device on functional independence, performance and productivity) and Self-esteem (the extent to which a device has affected self-confidence, self-esteem and emotional well being). Scores can range from -3 (maximum negative impact) through zero (no perceived impact) to +3 (maximum positive impact). The PIADS appears to be a responsive and sensitive measure of the impacts of a wide range of ATs, in populations of adults who have various forms of disability and medical condition . Self-esteem (8 items) - Self-confidence - Self-esteem

Overview of Treatment Approach

As mentioned, DBT is structured into stages of treatment, and these correspond to stages of disorder. Stage I DBT targets severe behavioral dyscontrol, with the goal of achieving overall behavioral control. Once behavioral control is achieved, it becomes possible to work on other important goals Stage II targets problems with emotional experiencing (including PTSD-related problems), with the goal of increasing the capacity for normative emotional experiencing (without escalating or blunting) stage Ill targets remaining problems in living and self-respect, toward the goal of resolving these problems and stage IV targets the sense of incompleteness, with the goal of increasing the capacity for sustained joy and freedom. Again, most of what has been written on DBT (including Linehan's treatment manuals) and treatment outcome studies, to date, pertain to stage I. As we note, DBT also offers a unique approach to treatment of emotional experiencing problems in stage II. The interpersonal...

Need and Rationale for the PIADS

By psychosocial we refer to both factors within the person and factors attributable to the environment that affect the psychological adjustment of individuals who have a disability. We are concerned with the challenges faced by these individuals in relation to the social environment. This includes measuring how they perceive their assistive devices to act as environmental facilitators, whose goal is to enhance unrestricted or facilitated participation in major areas of human life. Intrapersonal factors are the core dimensions of psychological well-being, which include independence, personal control, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. In our experience, they are essential components of how AT users define the impact of their devices on their quality of life.

Development of the PIADS

PIADS items were created from 3 principal sources (1) empirical explorations with the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance scale (2) qualitative research (focus groups) wherein AT users were asked to describe how they expected devices to impact their quality of life (3) the literature on personality research which suggested that the PIADS include items that are associated with constructs such as perceived self-efficacy and personal control. The priority was to create a scale that would reliably measure perceived device impact and discriminate among device categories and user conditions in a clinically sensible way. The authors were less concerned originally about developing a measure that was consistent with any single theoretical perspective.

Sandalwood Santalum album Santalaceae

Sandalwood oil is used in high-quality perfumery, and in today's aromatherapy it is thought to improve self-esteem. It is used in high-value soaps and incense, and the wood is still used for inlay and high-value woodcarving and to scent the funeral pyres of members of the highest castes of India. In parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, it has become an endangered species although harvesting is government-controlled, supplies are also stockpiled by bandits in order to control the price.

Ipt The Matrix For

Nonblaming way, similar to how people might see themselves when diagnosed with diabetes or pneumonia. In this way, the model of depression in IPT is similar to that used in medication treatments. Depression is considered to be the product of malfunctioning brain mechanisms that is not related to personal or moral weakness and need not be intrinsic to the person's sense of self. The therapist helps patients to see that self-blame and low self-esteem are symptoms of the depression. Naming symptoms in this manner can be a powerful intervention in itself. Furthermore, such a practice supports a discussion of the possible use of medication also a charge to the therapist in the initial phase of IPT. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) practitioners also name symptoms and provide a nonblaming way to think about the symptoms. The basis for the IPT focus on grief is the assumption that bereavement-related depression is a result of inadequate grieving. Depression that results from inadequate...

The Cognitive Vulnerabilitystress Models Of Unipolar Depression

In Beck's (1967) model of depression, negative self-schemata organized around themes of failure, inadequacy, loss, and worthlessness serve as vulnerabilities for the onset and exacerbation of depression that are activated by the occurrence of stressful events relevant to the content of the self-schemata. Such negative self-schemata are often represented as a set of dysfunctional attitudes in which the individuals believe that their happiness and self-worth depend on being perfect or on others' approval. Consistent with cognitive science operationalizations of the schema construct (e.g., Alba & Hasher, 1983 Taylor & Crocker, 1981), Beck (1967) hypothesized that depressive self-schemata influence the perception, interpretation, and recall of personally relevant experiences, thereby leading to a negatively biased construal of one's personal world. When activated by the occurrence of negative events, depressive self-schemata lead to the onset or exacerbation of depressive symptoms through...

Case Example Of Depression

In our developmental model, an important aspect of certain types of depression is not necessarily the loss of the real object, but the loss of, or never having the ability to create, the internal representation of the object, particularly in its soothing and dependency-oriented patterns. This leaves the person at the mercy of direct, concrete behavioral patterns. A sense of internal self-esteem, based on representations of the object, in terms of soothing, admiration, respect,

Cognitive Styles Associated with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

Relatively few studies have directly examined the cognitive styles or information processing of individuals with bipolar mood disorders. Based on the grandiosity that is a common symptom of mania and hypomania, one might expect bipolar individuals (who experience manic or hypo-manic episodes) to exhibit cognitive patterns more positive than those of unipolar depressive individuals. On the other hand, based on psycho-dynamic formulations suggesting that the grandiosity of manic or hypo-manic periods is a defense or counterreaction to underlying depressive tendencies (Freeman, 1971), bipolar individuals would be expected to exhibit cognitive styles as negative as those of unipolar depressives. In a more modern version of the psychodynamic hypothesis, Neale (1988) suggested that grandiose ideas have the function of keeping distressing cognitions out of awareness and are precipitated by underlying low self-regard. Similarly, based on an extension of the cognitive theories of unipolar...

Medical Alcohol Drug Abuse or Dependence Detoxification or Other Symptom Treatment with CC

Most of the abused drugs fall into two main categories, CNS depressants and CNS stimulants. CNS depressants include narcotics, sedatives, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and inhalants. The desired effect by the user is a sense of increased self-esteem, euphoria, relaxation, and relief from pain and anxiety. CNS stimulants include amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cocaine. The desired effect by the user is a sense of well-being, alertness, excitation, overconfidence, and increased initiative.

Stability of Cognitive Styles Associated With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

Four studies have obtained support for negative cognitive styles and information processing in remitted bipolar individuals. For example, Winters and Neale (1985) assessed groups of remitted bipolar and unipolar patients and normal controls on a battery of self-report measures of self-esteem, social desirability, and self-deception as well as on an implicit pragmatic inference task designed to measure causal attributions for hypothetical scenarios. They found that although the remitted bipolar patients showed higher self-esteem, social desirability, and self-deception than the remitted unipolar patients and normal controls on the self-report measures, they generated causal inferences as negative as those of the remitted unipolar patients on the more implicit pragmatic inference task. Among their subsample of 17 remitted unipolar depressed women, 11 remitted bipolar women, and 24 nonpsychiatric control women, Rosenfarb et al. (1998) found that both the remitted unipolar and bipolar...

In Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

In lupus erythematosus (LE), the skin organ is involved to a varying extent with gross intraindividual and interindividual differences. These differences have been referred to in detail in other chapters of this book. Dermatologic symptoms usually do not influence the survival of patients, but they do affect their quality of life and self-esteem to a great extent. In addition, cutaneous LE (CLE) mainly affects young and middle-aged patients and presents with a chronic course. Consequently, therapy has to be balanced for short- and long-term side effects and often may be restricted to safe yet effective local measures, including sun protection. Beyond these measures, antimalarials are the first-line treatment for cutaneous disease (Callen 2002, Duna and Cash 1995, Jessop et al. 2001, McCauliffe 2001, Patel and Werth 2002, Reid 2000, Werth 2001). However, physicians are often faced with the challenge of recalcitrant skin disease unresponsive to such conventional therapy and have to...

Keeping Your Teeth and Gums Healthy

Having a clean mouth is good for you in many ways. Not only does it give you fresh breath and a nice smile, but it also gives your self-esteem a lift. Thorough daily cleaning of your teeth and gums helps prevent tooth decay and periodontal disease (gum disease). Keeping your teeth and gums healthy also can improve your overall health. Periodontal disease may be a factor in the development of chronic conditions such as heart disease.

Education as a method of dietary behavioral change

Change in self-efficacy - alteration of the determinants of behavior, such as attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy (see Part 1B), in combination leading to a change in behavior Above the matrix the communication variables can be found message (form and content), receiver (target group), channel (medium), and source (an expert, organization, authority, etc.). The questions that need to be answered in the development of communication interventions can be formulated as what is communicated (message), to whom (receiver), how (channel), and by whom (source) The boxes of the matrix represent large numbers of decisions which have to be made in order to develop an effective educational intervention. The first decision concerns the desired behavioral change (message) in a particular target group (receiver). The second decision is directed at the determinants of behavior, i.e., what message is needed to affect attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (see Part 1B). Subsequent...

Choreographers Take The Lead

A mother's oversight also can facilitate a man's opportunity to develop a fatherly identity. When men are encouraged by mothers to interact with the children, the ground is set for the development of a self-image as a father and, by proxy, a sense of partnership in the family troupe as a whole. In his interview, Rodney, thirty-seven, expresses frustration that this hasn't yet developed. His perceived lack of influence in relation to his wife and two stepchildren causes emotional anguish, which has led him to contemplate a divorce.

Ineffective Coping And Compromised Family Coping

Related to (Specify for the child separation from family, friends, home, and school activities loss of control, altered self-image, altered body image, altered self-esteem, and altered sense of self-confidence. For the parents uncertainty of child's future, sense of helplessness and powerlessness, multiple family stressors and demands related to child's health care needs .)

Preparing for Surgery

There are no guarantees when it comes to the results of cosmetic surgery. Be sure that you have realistic expectations about how you hope to look and feel after the procedure. Discuss your expectations fully with your doctor and listen carefully to his or her description of the proposed outcome. Do not expect cosmetic surgery to stop or reverse the aging process. Although cosmetic surgery can enhance your appearance and increase your self-confidence, it will not necessarily match your ideal image or cause other people to treat you differently. The final result may differ from what you have in mind.

General Description of the PIADS

The PIADS is a 26-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the effects of an assistive device on functional independence, well-being, and quality of life. (See the sample of the PIADS Questionnaire.) The three subscales of the PIADS are based on a factor analysis of the responses combined from several studies. The first one, Competence, measures feelings of competence and efficacy. It is sensitive to the perceived impacts of assistive technology on performance and productivity. The Competence subscale (12 items) includes questions on topics such as competence, productivity, usefulness, performance, and independence. The second subscale, Adaptability (6 items), indicates a willingness to try out new things and to take risks. It is sensitive to the enabling and liberating aspects of assistive technology that might be expected if ATs enhanced participation as described in the WHO (ICF) framework. The Adaptability subscale includes questions on topics such as ability to...

Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory is applicable to health promotion in explaining and predicting behavior through key concepts such as incentives and outcome expectations. According to the theory, change is a function of expectations for example, expectations of what may result from participating in a behavior change activity or one's ability to execute the behavior. Three key aspects to the theory are vicarious learning or imitation of the behavior, the use of symbols, and principles of self-management. See Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy.

Hnc Qol Perspective Where Are We Going

Well-being remains to be clearly defined in patients with altered states of health. It is tentatively defined as a person's perception of life quality, a personal experience that is influenced by both the individual's past experiences and current expectations. This emphasizes the importance of imparting realistic expectations in cancer treatment planning to the patient before treatment is administered. One article illustrates the types of domains that are taken into consideration in attempting such definitions.25 This study is described in some detail to indicate the complex and sophisticated level to which QOL research has developed, and to illustrate the types of factors currently thought to be relevant and that are probably not typically taken into consideration by many HNC treatment managers. Well-being under a stressful life circumstance such as illness may be mediated by three factors (1) the extent to which people see themselves as being in control of their environment (2) the...

Sexual Desire and Aging

Male Steriod Facies

Many healthy older men maintain their production of testosterone at levels equal to those of younger men. Men feel some level of sexual desire throughout life. A positive self-image is probably the single greatest contributor to sexual desire. Men and women who feel good about their bodies and who perceive themselves as physically desirable are more likely to have a satisfying sexual relationship than those who do not. Women, however, are more likely to base their self-image primarily on judgments about their appearance men also consider appearance but give greater weight to their sexual performance. Men and women with positive attitudes toward sex are more likely to remain sexually active throughout their lives.

Information about the Kindlr Questionnaire

The KINDLR questionnaire consists of 24 Likert-scaled items associated with six dimensions physical well-being, emotional well-being, self-esteem, family, friends and everyday functioning (school or nursery school kindergarten). The sub-scales of these six dimensions can be combined to produce a total score. Self-Esteem Self-Esteem

Cognitive Behavioral and Nonpharmacological Treatments

The approaches described (i.e., relapse prevention, cue exposure desensiti-zation, contingency management, and motivational interviewing) are somewhat technical and require specific training and supervision. Research-based interventions such as these appear to be the wave of the future, and most can be adapted for use in community-based programs. Frequently, treatment of cocaine dependence takes place within the context of a comprehensive drug treatment program. Although therapeutic modalities may be the same as for other drug abusers (e.g., education, and individual and group therapy), the intensity of treatment must be greater. Emphasis must be placed on the acquisition of skills that will enable the cocaine abuser to have more internal control, greater self-efficacy, and reduced likelihood of relapse. This means that treatment must have multiple practical components.

Assessment Of Cognitions

The TABS is an 84-item measure that identifies disruption in several dimensions that impact interpersonal relationships, including Safety, Trust, Esteem, Intimacy, and Control. Similarly, the PBRS is a 55-item measure developed for use with sexual assault survivors to assess eight dimensions of Safety, Trust, Power, Esteem, Intimacy, Negative Rape Beliefs, Self-Blame, and Undoing (i.e., trying to deny or alter the event as a method of assimilation). Three subscales of the PBRS are predictive of intrusive symptoms of PTSD (Self-Blame, Undoing, and Safety), whereas four scales were predictive of avoidant symptoms of PTSD (Trust, Self-Blame, Undoing, Intimacy), and two scales were predictive of arousal symptoms (Power, Safety Mechanic & Resick, 1993). The WAS is a 32-item measure that evaluates eight categories of personal beliefs, including Benevolence of the World, Benevolence of People, Justice, Controllability of Life Events, Randomness of Life Events, Self-Worth, Self-Control, and...

Sallies 2000-physical Education

H., Cooley, E., Sewell, D. R., & Leavitt, N. (1994). Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African American women. Community Mental Health Journal, 30(3), 259-269. Rodgers, W. M., & Brawley, L. R. (1993). Using both self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior to discriminate adherers and dropouts from structured programs. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 5(2), 195-206. Rotter, J. B. (1992). Cognates of personal control Locus of control, self-efficacy, and explanatory style Comment. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 1(2), 127-129. Schwarzer, R., & Renner, B. (2000). Social-cognitive predictors of health behavior Action self-efficacy and coping self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 19(5), 487-495.

Avoiding Risky Behavior

Many of the health risks for today's children and adolescents are related to behavior and lifestyle. For example, risky behaviors (such as drug use and smoking) and failure to follow the basics of a healthy lifestyle (such as exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet) can contribute to poor health in both children and adolescents. A variety of personality traits have been identified in young children that can be used to predict risky behavior later in life. These traits include tolerance for deviance, rebelliousness, nontraditional values, emphasis on autonomy, inability to delay gratification, deemphasis on achievement, self-centeredness, and low self-esteem.

Healthy Weight

Carrying excess weight is a known health risk. Excess weight increases the heart's workload and can raise your chances of getting a number of serious medical conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, adult-onset diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. It also can adversely affect your self-image and make it difficult to exercise. But how can you find out what is your ideal weight

Social Vulnerability

This social vulnerability is present even in the pathological reactions to disasters. Among the risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder most often identified in the USA are female sex Hispanic ethnicity 32 personal and family history of psychiatric disorders experiences with previous traumas, especially during childhood poor social stability low intelligence neurotic traits low self-esteem negative beliefs about oneself and the world and an external locus of control 33 . Curiously enough, there is a preventing factor which is political activism.


Effective habit change usually requires a combination of psycho-educational, behavioural, and social learning strategies. Motivational interview and shared decision making are likely to be the most efficient approaches. Assessing the current motivation can be based on the transtheoretical model of change (TTM) with the goal to move from one behaviour to another healthier one. In a daily busy clinical practice, brief counselling interventions of one to three visits can substantially help patients change problematic behaviours, particularly in the areas of smoking cessation and exercise. The acronym FRAMES has been used to define the elements of an effective brief intervention which helps to trigger the patient motivation to change giving Feedback based on a thorough assessment helping the patient take Responsibility for changing giving clear Advice on what behaviour must change offering a Menu of options for making the change expressing Empathy for the ambivalence and difficulty in...


Certain personality characteristics are commonly associated with the etiology and maintenance of alcohol and drug abuse. The extent to which the particular feature presages the onset of substance use or is shaped by the long-term consequence of consumption needs to be ascertained on a case-by-case basis. Traits such as low self-esteem, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and behavioral under-control are highly prevalent in the drug-abusing population. Self-esteem disturbances are also present in substance-using individuals. Low self-esteem can occur in a number of areas of daily living and may be secondary to psychopathology. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Epstein, 1976) is a multidimensional scale with good breadth of coverage and superior psychometric properties. It taps aspects of psychological well-being that are not ordinarily covered by personality tests.

Speaking Contexts

The concept of face is often salient for Asian-ethnicity clients. Face involves issues of respect, both in showing respect towards professionals, and expecting respect in return. Any interaction that can result in a loss of respect or self-respect constitutes a loss of face. Satisfaction may be strongly influenced by expectations and experiences regarding respect in services. A client may also be reluctant to be candid regarding satisfaction to avoid causing loss of face. An inflated opinion might be offered to save or increase face for a clinician or center that is respected.

Quality of Life

Once one understands the concepts of QOL, the next step is to appreciate that it is now possible to measure QOL with reasonable accuracy. Numerous QOL instruments (questionnaires) have been developed both for general health and for specific disease.21-37 By necessity, these instruments have been designed to be consistent across socioeconomic class and cultural differences.35 In administering these tests, it is important to appreciate that the health care provider's and the patient's perception of QOL are significantly different. Disease recurrence and survival tend to be the focus of the provider, whereas the patient feels that functional status and self-image are paramount. Therefore, the best QOL measures are evaluated not by the provider but rather by patient self-reporting, by either an interview or questionnaire format. In general, the patient self-administered questionnaire has proved the best and least time-consuming. Ideally, QOL should be measured (1) at pretreatment, (2) at...

Duke Health Profile

Originally conceived as a 63-item measure, DUKE has been pared down to 17 questions that profile six domains (physical, mental, social, general, perceived health, and self-esteem), and four dysfunction measures (anxiety, depression, pain and disability). The format is easy to fill out and scoring is simple. Self-esteem (5 items) Quality of life and functional health were measured cross-sectionally for 314 adult ambulatory primary care patients in a rural clinic and found to be much better for patients with low severity of illness who required no confinement to home because of health problems, than for patients with high severity of illness who required confinement. Severity of illness was the strongest predictor for patient-reported physical health function and for patient quality of life when assessed by the health provider. Confinement was the strongest predictor for patient quality of life when assessed by the patient. There was very little agreement between patient-assessed and...


Yet, identification with same-sex individuals in another primate species may not be quite so simple as it sounds. This history of primatology suggests that the nature of this identification was changing over time as the self-image of women researchers also changed. In my own case, changes in the way I looked at female langurs were linked to a dawning awareness of male-female power relationships in my own life, though ''dawning'' perhaps overstates the case.

Priming Studies

A central premise of some cognitive approaches to depression is that vulnerable individuals possess cognitive risk factors that are largely inactive until individuals encounter adversity in a domain that is central to their sense of self-worth. For example, in Beck's model, stress in the person's environment is postulated to activate the negative self-schema, particularly stress matching the individuals' core doubts and concerns about self-worth (Segal, Shaw, Vella, & Katz, 1992). Even though a number of studies have assessed cognitive functioning during a depressive episode, because this cognitive functioning could be a consequence of depression, these studies are usually uninformative about cognitive processes that are thought to be linked to the onset of a depressive episode (Barnett & Gotlib, 1988). Additionally, research examining cognitive functioning in currently nondepressed but vulnerable individuals has generally failed to show that they think in depressotypic ways, but this...


Acne is one of the most common skin diseases that physicians see in everyday clinical practice. It is a follicular eruption which begins with a horny impaction within the sebaceous follicle, the comedo. The rupture of the comedo leads to a foreign body inflammatory reaction which clinically presents as papules, pustules and nodules. The morphological expressions of acne are variable. Acne can affect persons of all ages, including neonates, infants and mature adults, being most prevalent and most severe during adolescence. Significant psychosocial disabilities can arise as a consequence of the disease. Patients may frequently experience poor self-image, anxiety, depression and social isolation employment opportunities also seem to be influenced by the presence of acne. As a consequence, an effective management of acne can have a relevant impact on the acne patient's life.


Well as decreased mood disturbance and anxious mood (Cruess et al., 2000a) in HIV-positive patients. A similar study demonstrated that behavioral stress management techniques such as self-induced relaxation using progressive muscle relaxation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback, self-hypnosis, and meditation resulted in improvement in anxiety, mood, and self-esteem (Taylor, 1995). Lutgendorf and colleagues (1998) also observed improvement in cognitive coping strategies, namely positive reframing and acceptance in addition to improvements in social supports.

Abuse and Addiction

With recreational use, the cocaine user's initial experience of elation and heightened energy, with increased sexuality and self-esteem, appears to be free of negative consequences. Abusers may experience occasional problems associated with their drug use. Unlike dependence on alcohol or opiates, cocaine dependence is frequently characterized by binge use. With chronic and increased use, there is increased drug toxicity, dysphoria, and depression. The addict has irresistible cravings for cocaine. He or she focuses on pharmacologically based cocaine euphoria despite progressive inability to attain this state and adverse physical, psychological, and social sequelae. Loved ones are neglected, responsibility becomes immaterial, financial hardships occur, and nourishment, sleep, and health care are ignored.

Piads Assistive Tech

Piads Questionnaire

Were .95 for the PIADS total score and .92, .88, and .87 for the Competence, Adaptability, and Self-esteem subscales, respectively. Sixty respondents completed the PIADS twice, about a month apart. None of the f tests comparing the two assessments reached significant differences (p values ranging from .77 to .85), indicating the stability of the scale. Construct validity was examined using a Principal Component Analysis of the data from 307 subjects. The results yielded three distinct subscales, accounting for 61.1 of the total variance. This 3-dimensional structure was confirmed in replication studies involving 150 eyewear device users and 92 wheelchair users. Construct validity was further demonstrated in an examination of the association of the PIADS with a measure believed to tap environmental impact on emotional responses the Pleasure, Dominance and Arousal (PAD) scale. The Pearson correlation coefficients (rp) were significant at the 0.05 level between the PIADS subscales and...

Alcohol Intoxication

Acute alcohol intoxication (drunkenness, inebriation) may be mild (blood alcohol 0.1-1.5 dysarthria, incoordination, disinhibition, increased self-confidence, uncritical self-assessment), moderate (blood alcohol 1.5-2.5 ataxia, nystagmus, explosive reactions, aggressiveness, euphoria, suggestibility), or severe (blood alcohol 2.5 loss of judgment, severe ataxia, impairment of consciousness, au-tonomic symptoms such as hypothermia, hypotension, or respiratory arrest). Concomitant intoxication with other substances (sedatives, hypnotics, illicit drugs) is not uncommon. The possibility of a traumatic brain injury (subdural or epidural hematoma, intracerebral hemorrhage) must also be considered. Pathological intoxication after the intake of relatively small quantities of alcohol is a rare disorder characterized by intense outbursts of emotion and destructive behavior, followed by deep sleep. The patient has no memory of these events. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Reduction of...

The Bipolar Spectrum

According to DSM-IV, Bipolar I Disorder is defined by at least one episode of mania. Symptoms of mania include euphoria and or irritability, high energy activity, rapid speech and increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, high self-confidence grandiosity, decreased sleep, distracta-bility, and impulsive, reckless behaviors with a high propensity for negative consequences. Individuals with Bipolar I Disorder may have had prior depressive episodes and most will have subsequent manic or depressive episodes. They may also experience hypomanic episodes and mixed depressive manic episodes. The lifetime prevalence of Bipolar I Disorder is approximately 1.2 (Smith & Weissman, 1992), with community samples yielding prevalence estimates ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 (Weissman, Bruce, Leaf, Florio, & Holzer, 1990). Completed suicide occurs in 10 to 15 of individuals with Bipolar I Disorder (DSM-IV APA, 1994). Unlike unipolar depression, Bipolar I Disorder is equally common in men and women (Weissman...


The worldwide prevalence of ED has been estimated at over 152 million males with projections for 2025 being in excess of 320 million. In older males, ED may have a physical cause, such as disease, injury, drug side effects, injury to nerves, arteries, smooth muscles, and fibrous tissues, or impaired blood flow in the penis. Other common causes of organic ED include the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and neurologically related causes.9 The incidence of ED increases with age with approximately 5 of 40-year-old males and 15-25 of 65-year-old males experiencing aspects of ED. Surgery, including radical prostatectomy and bladder cancer surgery, can injure nerves and arteries near the penis, causing ED. Antihypertensives, antihistamines, antidepressants, and hypnotics can produce ED as a side effect. Psychological factors including stress, anxiety, guilt, depression, low self-esteem, and fear of sexual...


Methamphetamine elevates blood pressure, speeds heart rate, raises body temperature, dilates pupils, reduces food intake, and diminishes sleep. Low doses initially are associated with increased alertness, energy, and vigilance. Higher doses produce intoxication symptoms, including euphoria, enhanced self-esteem, and increased sexual pleasure. Even higher doses result in anxiety, irritability, tremors, paranoia, and stereotypical behavior. Tolerance (needing more drug to achieve a given effect) or sensitization (needing less drug to achieve a given effect) may occur upon continued methamphetamine exposure. Different drug effects may have varying rates of either tolerance or sensitization (Lukas, 1997). Tolerance to methamphetamine euphoria occurs more quickly than tolerance to its tachycardic or anorexic effects. Being more prone to seizures and psychosis after repeated dosing with methamphetamine is an example of sensitization (Koob, 1997). Methamphetamine toxicity can affect many...

Prospective Studies

In summary, although relatively few in number, the methodologically sound prospective studies suggest that the occurrence of stressful life events may contribute proximal risk to the onset of mood episodes in individuals with bipolar disorders. Given the more extensive literature on the role of stress as a precipitant of episodes of unipolar depression, it is not surprising that negative events may trigger bipolar depressive episodes. However, our review, as well as Johnson and Roberts' (1995) review, indicates that negative events may also contribute risk for manic hypomanic episodes. Given that almost none of the studies on stress and bipolar disorder have investigated positive life events, future research on life events and bipolar disorder should examine whether positive events also play a role in the course of bipolar spectrum disorders. Such positive events as achievements and gains could activate bipolar individuals' engagement in goal striving, which in turn might lead to...

We Need To Change

A fourth couple type is composed of partners who are distressed, but who are willing to take responsibility for their part in the troubled marriage. This is the type of couple that tends to have high self-esteem and to be very active regarding their marriage. In divorce talk, problems are defined as something to which both parties have contributed and, therefore, something to which both parties can and must participate in changing. Problems are still very distressing, and divorce may be mentioned as an option, but it is frequently mentioned as a last straw rather than the first option. As the following example illustrates, the prospect of divorce is not raised as a threat or a bargaining chip.

Un Sanctions

Reactions of citizens to the extraordinary circumstances caused by the sanctions were various. The extremely high rate of unemployment and lack of basic needs caused diffuse anxiety, helplessness, hopelessness, low self-esteem, and lost perspectives in life 3 . Part of the population exhausted its adaptive forces under the effects of chronic stress with constant new ''daily stresses''.

Coping Support

The recognition that most trauma survivors cope relatively well with trauma and do not develop PTSD or other problems has led those providing early care to seek to support the natural coping efforts of survivors. Helpers discuss coping with survivors, encourage adaptive efforts, and seek to provide additional instrumental support. These actions are consistent with models that emphasize perceived coping self-efficacy (Benight & Bandura, in press). However, although coping styles have been found to be related to development of chronic PTSD, there has been little investigation of how survivors cope with acute stress reactions and the various other challenges of the early posttrauma period. That early interventions affect coping behaviors and that these behaviors are related to outcome have not been demonstrated.

Protective Factors

Studies of long-term survivors with AIDS in the New York City area have demonstrated that high levels of hope and low levels of distress and depressive symptoms result in psychological resiliency and an extended life span (Rabkin et al., 1990, 1993). Another study in Miami showed that higher emotional expression and depth processing, including positive cognitive appraisal change, experiential involvement, self-esteem enhancement, and adaptive coping strategies, were significantly related to long-term survival status of men and women with AIDS, as well as to lower viral load and higher CD4 cell count in women with AIDS (O'Cleirigh et al., 2003). The clinical implications of these studies underscore the importance of psychotherapy in the treatment of suicidal

Risk perception

In health education, self-efficacy, a concept related to manageability, has proven its value in predicting people's behavior. Self-efficacy is the judgment the person has of his or her own efficacy to display a certain behavior, i.e., to manage and eliminate barriers and difficulties. To impart self-efficacy and a sense of manageability, risk communication should give detailed and clear information on the way in which risks and their negative consequences can be managed.


The fifth recommendation stresses the point that particular attention must be paid to the way risks and probabilities are presented. General guidelines for how risks should be presented cannot be given. A comparison of risks may be helpful, but only if the risk one wants to communicate does not differ too much from the risk with which it is compared. Further, one should be especially careful in communicating very small and very large probabilities (because of the psychologically big difference between certainty and probability), and give a framework of reference when possible (e.g., the chance of dying from cancer anyhow). It may also be useful to check a message for emotions releasing concepts. Mentioning death, for example, seems to augment the perceived threat considerably. The recommendations given above are of particular importance when the first aim in risk communication is reassurance of the public (e.g., you can safely eat food with licensed additives) and not behavioral...

Hair Loss

Our culture places great importance on hair and its appearance. Hair loss can cause embarrassment and loss of self-esteem. Your hair grows continually for 2 to 6 years, then rests for 2 or 3 months before falling out naturally. Shedding 50 to 100 hairs each day is a normal process, and each shed hair is replaced by

Facial Surgery

As they age, some men seek to improve the appearance of their face and neck through cosmetic surgery. Facial surgery covers a number of different procedures, including a facelift and forehead lift, eyelid surgery, nose surgery, facial implant surgery, and refinishing treatments for facial skin (such as chemical peels and dermabrasion). Sometimes two or more of these procedures are performed at the same time. Although facial surgery cannot reverse the aging process, it can give the face a younger, rejuvenated look that can increase your self-confidence and sense of well-being.

Recommended Reading

D., & Walter, H. J. (1992). Self-efficacy for AIDS prevention behaviors among tenth grade students. Health Education Quarterly, 19(2), 187-202. Stuart, K., Borland, R., & McMurray, N. (1994). Self-efficacy, locus of control, and smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 1-12.

Social Adjustment

One important aspect of school adjustment pertains to the extent to which the child participates in athletics and other extracurricular activities. These activities indicate how well the person is socially integrated and accepted by peers. In addition, it is essential to evaluate academic achievement and learning aptitude in the basic skill areas. For example, learning disability compounded by low self-esteem may be a major factor propelling a youngster toward drug use, as well as other non-normative behaviors. Standardized learning and achievement tests can readily document whether a learning deficit is present.