Pharmacological treatments of OSA risk factors and morbidities

Rather than considering OSA as an isolated condition for treatment, it is also important to consider risk aggravating factors such as obesity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and obstructive nasal pathologies. Furthermore, some of the important resultant morbidities of OSA such as hypertension (discussed above) and neurobehavioral dysfunction, particularly manifesting as excessive daytime sleepiness, also warrant early and direct therapeutic approaches. The roles of anti-obesity drugs,...

Obstructive sleep apnea

Factors that predispose to OSA include obesity, gender, age, ethnic (including genetic) factors, and craniofacial structure, and OSA may be aggravated by use of certain drugs and smoking. It is pathophysiologically characterized by repetitive episodes during sleep of upper airway narrowing and or closure, accompanied by increased breathing efforts in attempts to overcome such narrowing closure, also by arousals and or outright wakenings from sleep, as well as attendant respiratory and...

Primary insomnia

PI is a disorder characterized by difficulty initiating and or maintaining sleep. It is distinguished by its etiological independence from other physical or mental disorders. The high prevalence of insomnia is well documented. One national phone survey estimated that 9 of the population reported difficulties sleeping on a consistent basis, and 27 indicated occasional sleeping problems 7 . A large survey-based epidemiological study conducted in France 8 found that 19 of the population met...