Soap Making Basics Workshop
There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes, and formulations required for the wide variety of cosmetics and toiletries in the market. Products range from preparations for hair, oral, and skin care to lipsticks, nail polishes and extenders, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, antimicrobial soaps, and acne and sun screen products.
The exact origin of arrowroot is unknown, but it is indigenous to Central America and northern South America. The distinctive starch grains have been found at sites in Panama dating to 5000 14C years ago. It is now widely cultivated throughout the tropics, but is important mainly in the West Indies. In Southeast Asia it is mainly cultivated in home gardens. Its young rhizomes can be eaten boiled or roasted as a vegetable, and is the primary source of arrowroot starch, which is used as a thickener for savory and sweet dishes. The starch is also used industrially in the manufacture of paper, board, powders, glues, and soaps. The rhizomes are used as fodder and fertilizer, and plants are also grown as ornamentals for their striking brown-purple leaves. Mashed rhizomes are used medicinally to treat wounds and, in French Guyana and Dominica, were used to draw poison from wounds inflicted by poisoned arrows, hence the name.
Traditionally selected for its water content, which is pure, sweet, and uncontaminated, the ripe nut (technically a drupe, or stone fruit) and all other parts of the palm have become useful under domestication. The oil extracted from the dried endosperm (copra) became the most important part of the plant. Large-scale planting of coconuts for commercial export of the oil and dried copra began suddenly in many regions during the mid-19th century. With the abolishment of slavery in 1835, many plantation owners planted coconuts as a low-labor crop. From the 1860s to the 1960s coconut oil was the leading vegetable oil in international trade until overtaken by soybean and palm oils. There is still a large international demand for its use in cooking, in high-quality soaps, and for various industrial applications. Grown throughout the tropics, major producers include the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, the Pacific region, Malaysia, and Mexico. It is also of great local importance in...
An annual crop up to 2 m (6.5 feet) in height, sesame is today grown in China, India, Africa, and throughout the Americas for its highly nutritious oil. This is used primarily in the manufacture of margarine and cooking fats, but also in soaps and paints, and as a lubricant and illuminant. In India it is also used as the basis of scented oils used in perfumery. The residue, left after oil extraction, is used for animal feed. The seeds are also widely used in baking and confectionery.
In 1977, a project was started to find out the cause of melasma and its reliable treatment. From 1970 to 1974, most of the causative contact cosmetic allergens that produce pigmented cosmetic dermatitis had been discovered by 1977, the disease, which had been incurable prior to 1971, was cured, not by medication but by the exclusive use of allergen-free cosmetics and soaps. This usage of allergen-free cosmetics and soaps was designated as the allergen control system (ACS) (15). The effect of ACS had been so dramatic that a number of melasma patients whose outlook was somewhat similar to pigmented cosmetic dermatitis visited Saiseikai Central Hospital in Tokyo everyday, where ACS was invented and reported on by the mass media.
Geranium oils are derived from Pelargonium species, which are generally of South African origin. P. fragrans was first introduced to Europe by William A. van der Stel in 1794. The use of the rose-scented leaves of the P. capitatum x P. radans cross, called Rose, for commercial oil production commenced in Grasse in southern France in the early 19th century. The oil is used in most rose-scented perfumes and soaps. French colonies such as Algeria developed a geranium oil industry in the 1840s, as did R union 40 years later with material sent from Grasse. In R union it remains as a
True lavender oil is obtained from L. angustifolia, and ranks alongside citrus, rose, and mint oils as one of the most important essential oils in trade, with an annual production worldwide of 250 tons, mostly from France and Bulgaria. It is used in luxury perfumery, whereas the somewhat harsher lavandin oil, from L. x intermedia, is used in cheaper cosmetics and soaps and as a food additive. These and other species such as L. stoechas are also grown as a source of dried leaves and flowers, for use in potpourri and aromatic sachets.
Patchouli is a musky oil normally solvent-extracted from the downy leaves of the Southeast Asian Pogostemon cablin. Though very important in 20th-century perfumery (it became a hallmark of the hippy era), patchouli was known in ancient China at least 2,000 years ago, where it was added to writing ink. The Indian textile industry used it like vetiver (see following discussion), to perfume textiles, and the Arabs used it to scent carpets, from whence its odor would become known in Europe as malabathron. Today patchouli is used in perfumery for its musky basal notes, in soaps, in breath-fresheners, and in low tar tobacco.
Sandalwood oil is used in high-quality perfumery, and in today's aromatherapy it is thought to improve self-esteem. It is used in high-value soaps and incense, and the wood is still used for inlay and high-value woodcarving and to scent the funeral pyres of members of the highest castes of India. In parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, it has become an endangered species although harvesting is government-controlled, supplies are also stockpiled by bandits in order to control the price.
Cocamide DEA Coconut Oil Fatty Acids Diethanolamide NNbis2Hydroxyethyl Coco Fatty Acid Diethanolamide Cocoyl
Cocamide DEA, manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used in industry and at home as a surface-active agent. It is contained in hand gels, hand washing soaps, shampoos, and dish-washing liquids for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties, and in metalworking fluids and polishing agents as an anticorrosion inhibitor.
By hand, the exudate is allowed to dry on the wounded trees, where it forms into droplets. As a colorless, odorless, and hot or cold water soluble exudate, it is commercially desirable. Industrially significant, it has a history of use as an adhesive, candy glaze, and sugar crystallization preventer, stabilizer for the foam in beer, fat emulsifier for hand soaps and lotions, waterproofing agent, and in watercolor paints.
Carnauba is a wax harvested from Copernicia prunifera, a palm native to northeastern Brazil. The wax began to be more widely used in Brazil around 1810, and the first carnauba plantations may have been planted as early as the 1890s. Growing in a semi-arid region, the palms are harvested twice a year, the wax separating from the leaves as they dry, when it can then be collected, melted down, and packaged. Carnauba wax is harder than beeswax and many synthetic waxes, and is used primarily as a car wax and shoe polish. It is also used in wax varnishes, lipstick, soaps, crayons, inks, and as a coating for candies and pills.
The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originated in Africa, where there is evidence of its early use in west Africa dating to 5000 bc. Palm oil and other palm products did not become widely known in Europe until the European involvement in slave trade, and by the 16th century it was known as a medicine in Europe. Palm oil was closely associated with the slave trade because traders used it to feed the slaves and to oil their bodies before sale to make them look more attractive to buyers. The market in palm oil did, however, eventually help the cause of abolition, providing traders with an alternative interest in Africa after the abandonment of the slave trade in England. Introduced into northeastern Brazil trade during the 17th century slave trade, Elaeis palms now occur in there in semi-wild groves. Extensively used in soaps and candles, palm oil was being traded internationally by the end of the 18th century. Demand for palm oil increased in the Industrial Revolution when its use as a...
Reactions are quenched by the addition of ethanol, which not only attenuates enzyme action but also facilitates solubilization of the fatty acids during subsequent titration to yield sodium salts (the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ can interfere in the assay by forming fatty acid soaps recalcitrant to titration). One will note a clearing of the titration vessel as titration progresses, even though the ethanol-quenched subsample may initially be turbid because of insoluble fatty acids. The choice of a thymol-phthalein end-point (pH 9.3 to 10.5) indicator is essential to ensure the complete titration of all fatty acids, in view of the relative high pKa values for oleic acid noted earlier. Conceptually, assays for lipase activity using the colorimetric method (copper-soap procedure Basic Protocol 2) are similar to titrimetry in that liberated fatty acids are being measured however, the colorimetric method is more specific for fatty acids (Lowry and Tin-sley, 1976). Quenched subsamples of...
Soybean oil also began to be used far more extensively in the production of non-food items. In the search for new oils to replace the linseed oil (a flax product) being used in the production of paint, soybean seed oil was found quite suitable. Soon companies were using large quantities of this soybean oil in the manufacture of types of paint and varnishes. The oil was also used to manufacture soft soaps, linoleum, and explosives. As mentioned above, a by-product of soybean seed processing was the cake. This material was also used in the soybean industry, ground into meal and used to manufacture foodstuffs for cattle feed and fertilizer for field crops. Yellow American-grown soybean meal varieties when consumed fresh have a sweet nutty flavor and are high in protein samples of meal were found to have from 46 to 52 percent protein (Morse 1918, 106).
Dimethylaminopropylamine is an aliphatic amine present in amphoteric surfactants such as liquid soaps and shampoos. It is present as a residual impurity thought to be responsible for allergy from cocamidopropylbetaine. It is structurally similar to diethyl-aminopropylamine. It is also used as a curing agent for epoxy resins and an organic intermediate in chemical synthesises (ion exchangers, additives for flocculants, cosmetics and fuel additives, dyes and pesticides). Patch test has to be carefully interpreted, since the 1 aqueous solution has pH 11 (personal observation).
Their general formula is C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. Each non-oxynol is characterized by the number (n) of ethylene oxide units repeated in the chain for example, nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-14. They are present in detergents, liquid soaps, emulsifiers for creams, fabric softeners, photographic paper additives, hair dyes, lubricating oils, spermicides, and anti-infective agents. They are irritants and sensitizers. Nonoxynol-6 was reported as a sensitizing agent in an industrial hand cleanser and in a crack-indicating fluid in the metal industry. Nonoxynol-9 is the most common
Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin condition that occurs when your skin comes into contact with allergens, substances to which you are allergic but that are harmless to most people. This condition is not triggered by harsh soaps or acids, for example, because these substances are irritants that will produce a rash on anyone's skin, given enough exposure.
While unaffected by ordinary soaps, pubic lice can be destroyed with a special shampoo or lotion containing malathion or carbaryl. Typically, the medication works in a single treatment, but it is important to follow the directions very carefully if used incorrectly, the chemicals can be toxic. Itching may persist for a few days after successful treatment. Contact your physician, however, if you develop redness, swelling, tenderness, or drainage around the areas of infestation or if the lotion comes into contact with your eyes.
The semi-open test as described by Dooms-Goossens 6 is particularly helpful if strong irritancy under occlusion is suspected, e.g., in the case of shampoos, liquid soaps, nail varnish, and also industrial products such as glues, paints, inks, varnishes, etc. The golden rule is that when a subject comes into direct skin contact with such a product (either on purpose, e.g., cleaning products, or accidentally, e.g., soluble oils, paints), then the product may be tested in this way. Corrosive or other toxic materials (pH 10) that are normally used in closed systems only or with protection from appropriate clothing are excluded from testing. The material is applied to the skin with a cotton swab (about 15 l) on a small area (2 x 2 cm), left to dry (possibly dabbing with another Q-tip or tissue), and is then covered with acrylic tape (e.g., Micropore, 3M) (Fig. 2).
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