Fat Burning Soup Recipes
Native to temperate and tropical America, Bidens pilosa has spread to the Pacific, Asia, and Africa. The prickly seed vessel has hooks and clings to clothing. The leaves have a strong, resinous flavor and are eaten raw in salads, or steamed and added to soups and stews. They can also be dried for later use. It is one of the most important wild greens (michicha) in eastern Africa. In Australia and Hawaii the young shoot tips are used to make a tea. A juice made from the leaves is traditionally used all over the world to dress wounds and ulcers.
In the culinary traditions of some Mediterranean areas, aerial parts of borage are the main ingredient of boiled mixtures of greens, generally used in soups (as in the Prebuggiun or wild greens of Genoa, in northwest Italy), or sometimes fried in olive oil and garlic (erbucci). The cultural use of borage in consumption of wild greens seems to mirror the spread of olive tree cultivation along many coastal areas, as has been modeled in areas bordering northwestern Tuscany and Liguria (central northern Italy). In central Europe, borage is often cultivated in gardens and the young leaves are used in mixed salads to add their distinctive cucumber taste. It is also quite common for the blue flowers to be used as a decoration for salads and desserts.
The aerial parts of wild cow parsnip have been used for a long time in central and eastern Europe and were the original ingredients of the famous Russian and Polish sour soup borscht (or barszcz). This soup was originally made by heating up the liquid that resulted from the natural lactic fermentation of the aerial parts of H. sphondylium (similar to the German tradition of fermenting a few varieties of cultivated Brassica oleracea and producing sauerkraut). In eastern Europe the name of this soup and of the plant, H. spondylium, are in fact the same barszcz. In the past, particularly during times of famine, the succulent stems of cow parsnip have been gathered from the wild, eaten as green vegetables, or even transformed into a low-alcohol fermented drink, raka. The young stems were also used as a vegetable by western North American natives and occasionally gathered and eaten in the outer Hebrides. Today consumption seems to be restricted to a few areas in Siberia.
This species exists in two forms, Job's tears and Adlay. Job's tears have shiny bracts, and are often used as beads in botanical jewellery. Adlay (var. ma-yuen) has papery bracts and starchy grains, and is grown on a small scale as a food grain in east and southeast Asia. The grains are eaten whole in soup, or ground into flour and eaten as porridge or cakes. In Nagaland, northeast India, and in some parts of southeast Asia, adlay is used for brewing local beers. The fruits have a variety of traditional medicinal uses, including reputed anticancer properties. Cultivation is decreasing as adlay is replaced by rice and corn. The date and region of domestication are unknown, but adlay is found at archaeological sites in northeast India from about 1000 bc. The wild ancestor (var. lacryma-jobi), native to tropical Asia, is thick-shelled the thin-shelled edible form evolved under domestication. Unlike most other cereals, adlay plants are cultivated on a small scale, often in home gardens....
Apium graveolens is cultivated in two different forms. One is the so-called true celery (A. graveolens var. dulce), grown for its stems the other is celeriac (A. graveolens var. rapaceum), cultivated for the swollen, underground, base of the stem. In its wild form, the species is native to the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Celeriac was probably domesticated much later than celery. It is first mentioned in European and Arab sources in the 16 th century. Celeriac, also known as knob celery and turnip-rooted celery, has a mild celery- and parsnip-like flavor. It is eaten cooked or grated raw in salads and has been widely used as an ingredient of French salads and in soups, stuffings, and pur es in Russia and northern Europe.
This is an ancient domesticate of eastern North America, closely related to the sunflower H. annuus. Its tubers were eaten by indigenous people, especially in what is now Canada. Archaeological evidence shows that it was domesticated by 1100 ad. It was probably taken to Europe, initially France, in the early 1600s. It is not a major crop, but is cultivated around the world in many temperate countries, and in some parts of the tropics. The irregular and knobbly tubers contain inulin, and so are suitable for diabetics. The tubers are eaten baked, steamed, mashed, in soups, or raw in salads. The species used to be grown for alcohol production in parts of France and Germany. The tubers are also used as cattle fodder in China, France, and Italy.
Basil is native to tropical Asia and Africa and has been cultivated in Europe for centuries. The leaves are used fresh in cooking being added to soups, salads, especially tomato salad, and meat and fish dishes. Fresh basil is an essential ingredient in pesto sauce, made by pounding fresh leaves in a mortar with salt, olive oil, and garlic. Parmesan cheese, pine nuts, or walnuts may also be added, and the resulting sauce is stirred into minestrone soup or hot pasta. Thai basil (O. x citriodorum Thai ) is an annual native to Thailand and Burma. It has a darker leaf than common basil and a slight anise flavor. In Thailand it is used in salads and as a garnish.
Costmary is native to the Near East and was used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. By the 16th century it was common in gardens in Britain though it was probably first introduced by the Romans. The colonists took it to North America where it is common in the eastern and midwest states. It gets its American name, bibleleaf, from the long leaves being used as page markers in the bibles of the early colonists. It is used for flavoring ale (beer) and can be used for flavoring soups, game, poultry, veal, and stuffing. It has a soft balsam flavor and should be used sparingly in cooking. The related C. coronarium (crown daisy, Shingiku, or chop suey green) has piquant leaves which may be used in salads or cooked in Oriental cuisine.
Prevent aspiration pneumonia by first determining the patient's ability to handle solids and liquids. Keep a suction machine nearby while feeding the patient. Some patients have difficulty with liquids, so thicken fluids with soft foods like cooked cereal, applesauce, soup, or mashed potatoes.
The origin of this species is not known, but it is native to Central and South America, from southern Mexico to Panama, Colombia, Bolivia and Brazil, and from Cuba to Trinidad. It has been introduced into Florida and the Old World tropics where it has naturalized in many places. It was introduced to Southeast Asia by the Chinese as a substitute for coriander, both as a garnish and in cooking. Although it is collected from the wild or gardens in most places, it is also cultivated in South America and occasionally elsewhere in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Japan. The leaves are aromatic and smell like coriander. Its fresh leaves are used as a flavoring in soups, curries, stews, rice, and fish dishes. The tender, young leaves are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. It also has many medicinal uses throughout its distribution and has been used as an aphrodisiac.
Lovage is native to southern Europe (a related plant, Ligusticum scoticum, grows wild in northern Britain and on the Atlantic coasts of North America). It was used by the Greeks and Romans to aid digestion. The seeds, leaves, and leafstems have a strong, earthy, celery flavor and are chiefly used to flavor soups and stews. It is particularly useful in vegetarian dishes, with rice, vegetable seasonings, and nut roasts. Its stems can be used in salads or candied like angelica. The seeds are used on bread or cheese biscuits.
Aerial parts of this evergreen shrub are collected and used as additives in meat and milk-based soups by the Batemi and Masai of east Africa. Saponin-like compounds contained in Cape myrtle, which forms a significant part of the Masai diet, are believed to inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol, thus helping the indigenous people, who consume large amounts of meat, to remain healthy. The flowers of this species are also eaten, whereas the fruit is said to be used as a treatment for intestinal worms.
Parsley is one of the best-known and most widely grown herbs. In England and America the curly-leaved varieties are most popular elsewhere the plain, flat-leaved forms are favored, and they do have a better flavor. The Greeks used it to make victory wreaths to crown the athletes at the Isthmian Games and for offerings at the tombs of the dead. The Romans were the first to use it for flavoring food. It is native to the Mediterranean region and was introduced into Britain in the 16 th century and later to the United States. The Hamburg variety is grown for its enlarged fleshy taproot and was introduced to Britain from Holland in 1727 by Miller. Fresh or dried leaves are used, finely chopped, as flavorings for sauces, soups, seasonings, rissoles, and mince, and sprinkled over vegetables and salads.
Rue is native to the Mediterranean region, although it has naturalized elsewhere now. It was cultivated by the ancient Greeks and Romans as a spice and medicinal plant and was also commonly used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In Britain, it grew wild in parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire in 1597, possibly as a remnant of Roman cultivation. The leaves are blue-green and fleshy and have a strong aroma and bitter flavor. In the kitchen it was used as an occasional flavoring to soups and stews and was often pickled to use as a relish with meat. Today, the plant is cultivated in several countries of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. The bitter pungent leaves are used, fresh or dried, in small quantities for salads and as a flavoring for bread, meat, vinegars, and various dishes. It is also used to impart bitterness to wines. Rue oil, obtained by distillation of the leaves, is mainly produced in Spain and Portugal. It is used as a spice and perfume.
Thyme grows wild in mountainous areas bordering the Mediterranean. It is one of the great European culinary herbs and was used by the ancient Greeks. They regarded it as the herb of courage, elegance, and grace. It was used with burnt sacrifices, which gave rise to its name (thymon, Greek to fumigate). The Romans grew it beside their beehives to flavor honey. They also used thyme to flavor cheeses and liqueurs. It may have been introduced to Britain by the Romans, but it was certainly commonly cultivated in England before the middle of the 16th century. There are many varieties which are used for culinary purposes such as lemon thyme (T. x citriodorus), orange thyme, Corsican thyme, Sardinian thyme, and the broad-leaved, narrow-leaved, and variegated forms. In cooking it is used to flavor stuffing and is a key ingredient in bouquet garni. It is used in soups, vegetables, fish, and chiefly with wine and onions to flavor meat dishes, especially those cooked slowly in the oven. It is...
Wild celery grows in moist places, especially by the sea, in much of Europe and Asia. It did not come into widespread cultivation until the 16th and 17th centuries in France and Italy when the milder-tasting forms were selected for their leaf stalks. The best leaf stalk celery is obtained by earthing up the stalks as the plant grows, which has the effect of blanching the stalks and reducing their bitterness. Recent breeding has produced self-blanching forms which do not need earthing up. Celery can be eaten raw with cheese or in salads it can be cooked by boiling or braising or can be made into soup. Celery leaves are an important vegetable in Southeast Asia where the Chinese developed cultivated varieties quite independently. These are thinner, juicier, and more strongly flavored than those in the west. They do not blanch the stems and always eat it cooked, often in a mixture of vegetables.
Cucumbers have been cultivated in India for thousands of years and are thought to be derived from the wild Cucumis hardwickii which grows in the foothills of the Himalayas. It was grown in ancient Egypt, by the Greeks and Romans, and also had reached China by the 6th century ad. It reached America in 1494 when Columbus introduced it to Haiti. It is now grown throughout the world. The fruit is usually elongated in shape and may reach up to 90 cm (36 inches) in length, though there are some more globular forms. They are normally harvested in an immature state and are eaten raw, either peeled and sliced in salads or sandwiches, or added to cold yoghurt-based summer soups or sauces. The term gherkin applies to varieties of cucumber grown for pickling and includes not only the small fruits of dwarf varieties of C. sativus but also the fruits of C. anguria, the West Indian or burr cucumber. This species is grown from Brazil to the West Indies, Texas, and Florida.
This is a species native of India that now grows in most of the world's tropical and subtropical regions. It is a relative of the jute plant and is grown worldwide as a source of fiber. Its young, tender, green leaves are edible raw and cooked and have long been used as a food. For culinary purposes the use of the leaves are widespread from West and North Africa and the Mediterranean islands through the Middle East to Malaysia, Australia, the Pacific islands, South America, and the Caribbean. In Egypt the leaves are used to make the national dish, a thick soup called molokhia to which they impart a mucilaginous quality. The leaves can be dried and stored and are frequently found in Middle Eastern food shops.
This member of the cotton family is probably native to tropical Africa it is now cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas from Thailand and India to Brazil. It seems to have reached the New World with the slave trade and is recorded in Brazil in 1658 and Dutch Guiana in 1686. It is the immature fruit pod which is eaten. It may be boiled or fried. The pods are highly mucilaginous and are used to thicken soups and stews. In America okra is characteristic of Creole and Cajun cookery. In India dried okra is cut into short sections which are fried like croutons and taste quite different from other forms. Hibiscus (Abelmoschus) manihot is cultivated in tropical Asia and Melanesia mainly for its leaves and flowers. The leaves are tender and sweet and have a very high protein content and may be eaten raw or steamed.
Onions appear to have originated in Afghanistan and spread westwards with the Greeks and Romans. They were not widely grown in Europe until the Middle Ages and were introduced to America by Columbus on his second voyage to Haiti (1493-94). Nowadays they are an important crop with the United States, China, Russia, and India being the largest producers. They are valued principally for their flavor and have a wide range of culinary uses. They can be eaten raw, fried, boiled, or roasted, in soup, stews, curries, and in chutney. The edible bulb is composed of enlarged leaf bases, and it may be globular or spindle-shaped. The skin may be brown, yellow, white, red, or purple. Bermuda onions include a number of mild-flavored forms distinguished by their colors Red Bermuda, White Bermuda, and Yellow Bermuda. Among the most popular American onions are two hybrid forms, both of the Yellow Granex type Vidalia which is grown around the town of that name in Georgia, and Maui which grows in Hawaii...
This was probably the first of the cucurbit family to be domesticated, remains have been found in Mexico dating to before 5000 bc, and it was grown in Peru by 3000 bc. It will tolerate hotter conditions than other cucurbits and is widely grown in the tropics today. The fruits can be used as a vegetable and can be stored in the winter because they have hard, protective shells. Popular varieties include acorn squash, butternut squash, hubbard squash, and spaghetti squash. Pumpkin blossoms were dried by the North American Indians and used to thicken soups. A similar species, C. mixta, was also domesticated early in Mexico.
Spinach originated in Iran, spread to China about ad 600, and from there spread to Japan and Korea. The Arabs introduced it to Spain in the 11th century, but it was not widely cultivated in Europe before the 16th century. Nowadays it is cultivated worldwide. There are two forms summer spinach with rounded seeds and winter spinach with seeds bearing two or three prickles. It can be eaten raw or boiled in a small amount of water, in soups, souffl s, green pastas, and oeufs Florentine.
Perhaps a more recent domesticate than many other pulses, the Adzuki bean was domesticated in Japan through selection from the wild form V. angularis var. nipponensis, which occurs in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, and Nepal. It is second to the soya bean in popularity in Japan and has been used in celebratory dishes both there and in China for many years. The dried pulse is either cooked whole or made into a meal used in soups, cakes, or confections. It has now been introduced in South America, the southern United States, Hawaii, New Zealand, Thailand, India, Kenya, Zaire, and Angola.
The Indian subcontinent is the largest grower, producing roughly 38 percent of the world's lentils, but lentils are grown in most subtropical and warm temperate areas, especially in Ethiopia, Syria, Turkey, and Spain. In India the crop is one of its most important dietary pulses lentil seeds, entire or split, are largely used in soups and dhal. Lentil seeds are also a source of commercial starch for the textile and printing industries. After threshing, the residues can be fed to livestock in the Near East this animal feed can sometimes fetch a higher price than the seed.
The process temperature and then to cool. In practice, liquid or pumpable foods will heat most rapidly because their flow properties permit the use of efficient heat exchangers. For this reason, high-temperature short time (HTST) and UHT treatments can be used for soups, sauces and milk. Solid or viscous foods are usually packed and heated in containers (e.g. cans, jars or pouches). Because of their geometry and the fact that heat is transferred by conduction from the outside, these containers will have slowest heating and cooling points. The rates of temperature change at the cold spot will often determine the time-temperature combination used for processing. This principle is equally applicable to sterilisation for ambient stability and the design of trays for cooling ready meals.
Although the history of the watermelon fruit is well documented, it is not clear how the seeds developed to their present-day popularity. In Africa, China, and, to a lesser extent, India, the oily seeds are eaten either raw or roasted, following removal of the seed coat. They are popular in soups and stews or may be ground into meal to make bread. In some districts of western tropical Africa, watermelons with bitter flesh are grown solely for their seeds. In many parts of Africa, edible oil is extracted from the seeds.
Rampion is distributed in Europe (excluding the northern countries) westwards to Siberia and in North Africa and southwest Asia. It used to be cultivated in Europe, and its leaves were a common ingredient of 16th-century soups and stews or as a salad, and its roots were boiled or steamed and eaten cold as a vegetable. By the early 19th century the use of rampions was dying out in Britain as the potato gained acceptance, though they were still being extensively grown in France and Switzerland. By the end of that century though, the use of rampions seem to have vanished. Today it is rarely cultivated for culinary purposes.
Basella is usually considered a native of southern Asia (India), but its exact origin is not known. In Southeast Asia and China it has been grown since ancient times and is now widely cultivated as a minor vegetable in most tropical and temperate regions around the world. It is commonly grown for its young shoots, which make a succulent, mucilaginous vegetable, used as a potherb in soups and stews, boiled, fried in oil, or sometimes as a green salad. In the Western Hemisphere, basella is grown in Mexico and parts of North America for its leaves that are used in the same way as spinach. An early use of the fruits in China seems to have been for dyeing purposes. The red fruit juice can be used as ink, cosmetic, and for coloring foods, and a number of medicinal applications have been reported. The red forms are commonly planted as ornamentals, even becoming popular in Europe as a pot plant.
Sodium, one of the ingredients of sodium chloride (table salt), plays a major role in hypertension. As mentioned, Americans in particular eat far too much salt. Meat, cheese, cereal, soups, pretzels, potato chips, tuna, bread, spaghetti sauce, and many other foods are salt-rich American favorites. We eat an average of 25 times as much as we need, because we like it. The salt content of processed foods is particularly high, especially canned or packaged products. Breads and cereals provide almost one-third of the salt we eat.
Great burnet, Sanguisorba officinalis, is a larger plant of similar uses. It originates from the temperate zones of Eurasia and North America and is cultivated mainly in Asia and Japan. The young leaves are used for salads and are also served with other vegetables or as a spice for soups. In folk medicine, extracts of the roots are used in Russia, China, and Japan as an antiseptic.
This species is native to South America, particularly the Andean region and Colombia, and has naturalized into parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia to become a cosmopolitan weed. In its native countries it is considered of culinary importance. The steamed young tops of the plant can be eaten as a vegetable. In Colombia it can be bought dried and ground into a green powder which adds a delicious flavor to soups and stews. It also makes good fodder for animals.
CD, ever a gentleman, did become an ornithologist, as well, but we can't follow him there the birds considered in this book consist only of species mentioned in *Birds, or in CD's Ornithological Notes (Barlow 1963) and BigSpecies Book, and which feed on, or otherwise relate to fish. (See also Bird's nest soup Cormorants Kingfishers Mother Carey's chickens Penguins Petrels Scissor-beak). Thus, we shall ignore the fishing owl in Richardson's Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829-37) although it was noted in CD's Marginalia. Bird's nest soup The question arises what could this entry possibly have to do with fishes, given that t he nest is composed of a brittle white translucent substance very like pure gum-arabic or even glass . This dry mucilaginous matter soon absorbs water & softens examined under the microscope it exhibits no structure, except traces of lamination & many generally conspicuous in small dry fragments, & some bits looked almost like vesicular larva (Big Species Book, p. 499)....
The sole survivor of a group of primitive trees that were dominant in the northern hemisphere 125 million years ago, Ginkgo biloba is native to northern China. It has been valued in both China and Japan as a sacred tree, cultivated around Buddhist temples since about 1000 ad, and used for food, medicine, and ritual. After removing the putrid-smelling flesh, the cooked kernels of the female tree are enjoyed as a delicacy, often consumed with bird's-nest soup. The nut has also been used to make a cosmetic detergent, and the seed coat has been used as an insecticide. The tree was introduced to Europe as an ornamental in the 18th century.
Scotch or pot marigold is used pharmaceutically, for example, to treat chilblains, chronic wounds (including ones which heal very slowly), and other inflammatory conditions of the skin. In some rural regions of Europe (e.g., Switzerland and the German Black Forest) the species is still widely used externally as a veterinary anti-inflammatory remedy. Normally the flower heads are mixed with lard or another animal fat, heated for a short period in order to extract the active lipophilic constituents, and the resulting product is stored for usage. The flower heads are also used to color butter and to thicken soups.
This species is an important tuber crop of the Andes, second in production to the potato. Although the closest wild relatives exist in Peru and Bolivia, the wild ancestor is unknown. This and other Oxalis species were introduced to Europe in the 1830s as a rival to the potato, but never became popular. Oca has been successfully introduced to Mexico and New Zealand where the tubers are marketed as New Zealand yam. Many different cultivated types are recognized which are highly diverse in size and color. Some types have a strongly acidic taste when first harvested. The acidic taste disappears if the plant is exposed to sunlight for several days or is traditionally freeze-dried. Oca can be boiled, baked, or fried, and traditionally was added to stews and soups.
In the past in many parts of the world, the rhizome was ground and added to flour to bake bread. In the Canary Isles (La Palma and La Gomera) up to the 1930s the rhizomes were ground and mixed with barley meal to prepare a kind of porridge called gofio. It is the young shoots of the plant that are important in Japanese and Korean cooking the shoots are soaked for a day in water and ashes (an archaic detoxification method), then steamed or boiled and eaten as a vegetable or in soups. Sometimes the shoots are preserved in salt, in lees of sake or in miso. Bracken fern shoots have also been used in Siberia to produce a kind of beer, and by native peoples in North America. Leaves are commonly used by shepherds in the Mediterranean to filter sheep's milk and to store freshly made ricotta cheese.
This species is native to far eastern Russia, Japan, Korea, and China. It is cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and occasionally Southeast Asia and North America as a culinary herb. The main parts used are the leaves, the green stems, and the highly-prized blanched white stems, which look similar to coriander but have a milder flavor. Mitsuba comes from two main varieties, kansai (green) and kanto (whiter). In Japan, great care is taken in its cultivation and to techniques such as winter and summer blanching to make the stems more tender. It has a similar role in Japan to parsley in western countries and coriander in most other Asian countries, with a wide range of uses. These are eaten, fresh or blanched, to season clear and fish soups and a wide range of Japanese dishes. They should never be cooked for more than a couple of minutes or the flavor is lost. The seeds are also used as a seasoning. The plant has been widely employed for its medicinal properties.
Leeks do not occur in the wild they probably developed from the wild Allium ampeloprasum which is found in the Mediterranean, Azores, Canaries, Cape Verdes, and Madeira. Middle Eastern cultivated leeks differ from the European forms and are classified as Allium kurrat, kurrat being the Arabic name for leek. The Middle Eastern leek has narrower leaves than the European form and a distinct, often subdivided bulb. Leeks were much prized in ancient Egypt and even in Roman times Egyptian leeks were said to be the best. The Emperor Nero earned the nickname porrophagus because he ate raw leeks dressed with olive oil on several days a month to clear his voice. The Romans regarded leeks as far superior to onions and garlic, and Apicius gives four recipes for cooking them. They have been grown in Britain at least since Saxon times. It is claimed that Welsh warriors wore leeks in their helmets to show which side they were on in a victorious battle against the Saxons in the 7th century, and that...
Its principal culinary use is in pickling cucumbers (dill pickles) when the whole plant together with green seeds are used and are also used in sauerkraut. In parts of northern Europe dill sauce (made with leaves or dill weed ) is served with fish. Dill goes well in celery or zucchini soups. Dill seed is used as a condiment and can be used to flavor root vegetables, cakes, and sweets. The feathery leaves have a more delicate flavor they should be used raw or added at the end of cooking time to keep their flavor.
This species of Citrus is native to tropical Southeast Asia, but is now grown throughout Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Mascarene and Hawaiian Islands for its leaves and fruit juice, which are used as a flavoring. The leaves are a more common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes and are particularly ubiquitous in Thai cuisine. It is usual to tear the lime leaves before adding them to the cooking pot and to remove them once the dish is cooked. The leaves are used both fresh and dried in soups, curries, sauces, and gravies. Usually sold fresh in the native countries, dried whole and powdered leaves of makrut lime can also be found in Asian and western supermarkets. The dried or candied peels and the juice of the fruits also serve as a flavoring, and essential oils obtained from the leaves and fruit peel are utilized in the cosmetics industry.
This is one of the Chinese cabbages which evolved in China and has been in cultivation there since the 5th century ad. It is now widely grown in the Far East and Southeast Asia. It is an open rather than a hearted vegetable with fairly smooth oval, green leaves on thick stalks. Both the stalks and the leaves shrink greatly on cooking. They have a mild cabbage-like flavor. It is used in soups and stir-fry dishes but is seldom eaten raw. Brassica pekinensis, Pe-Tsai, is another form of Chinese cabbage also domesticated early in China and is now grown throughout the world. There are several forms one is long and narrow like a Cos lettuce, another is less long and barrel shaped in profile. The form with a compact, elongated head is best known in western countries where it is sometimes known as Chinese leaf. It is used as a salad plant, a vegetable, in soups, and in pickles.
The presence of oxalic acid gives sorrel its typical sour taste. When sorrel is eaten as a vegetable, it can be blanched first and the water discarded to reduce the acidity or steamed in a little butter. For serving, the sharpish taste may be softened by the addition of an egg yolk and cream. One old practice was to mix it with orache as it has a milder flavor. Sorrel is added to salads and used as an ingredient in soups, pur es, and sauces, as an omelette filling, and as a stuffing for fish. An old English accompaniment to meat and fish was greensauce made from sorrel pounded to a paste with vinegar or lemon juice and sugar, and this name was also applied to the plant itself.
The fruit is a fleshy berry which may be red or yellow in color and can vary in size from the small cherry tomato (1.5 cm in diameter) to the beef type (10 cm diameter). They are usually more or less globular in shape, but Italian plum tomatoes are ovoid, and there are also pear-shaped forms. Its fruits are consumed raw or cooked and processed in a great variety of ways as juice, soup, sauce, ketchup, paste, and they can also be dried. Green tomatoes are used to make chutney and pickles. Developments in plant breeding have led to greatly increased yields and disease resistance at the expense of its flavor those lucky enough to be able to grow their own tomatoes at home know that there is a world of difference in the flavor of the home grown, freshly picked fruits.
It is important in the initial examination to determine if PROM actually occurred. Often, urinary incontinence, loss of the mucous plug, and increased leukorrhea, which are common occurrences during the third trimester, are mistaken for PROM. Inspect the perineum and vaginal vault for presence of fluid, noting the color, consistency, and any foul odor. Normally, amniotic fluid is clear or sometimes blood-tinged with small white particles of vernix. Meconium-stained fluid, which results from the fetus passing stool in utero, can be stained from a light tan to thick green, resembling split pea soup. Take the patient's vital signs. An elevated temperature and tachycardia are signs that infection is present as a result of PROM. Auscultate the lungs bilaterally. Palpate the uterus for tenderness, which is often present if infection is present. Check the patient's reflexes, and inspect all extremities for edema.
The intestinal tract is unique in the body in regard to its constant exposure to insults from potentially pathogenic microbes and an abundant commensal bacterial microbiota. As sentinel, it performs a delicate balancing act between immune surveillance and waging war on opportunistic infections. In IBD, this balance is disrupted in favor of uncontrolled and excessive recruitment of activated lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils to the intestinal lamina propria. Once resident, these cells overproduce among others the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and the interleukins IL1b, IL6, IL8, and IL18 and a proteolytic soup of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3 especially) which together culminate in the prothrombotic destruction of the gut mucosa.
Ready-made soups, ready-made meals (deep-frozen or in tins), ready-made sauces Cooking salt, curry, stock cubes, spice mixtures, soup and meat extracts, all ready-made sauces and marinades, mustard, ketchup It is tedious to calculate your exact daily salt intake and generally impractical. You should therefore follow these rules avoid adding salt to meals and avoid the consumption of very salty foods, such as salted pork, salted nuts, ready-made soups, smoked meats and preserved foods. Herbs and spices can greatly improve the taste of meals that are low in salt. Don't worry, after 4-6 weeks 'acclimatization', even the most low-salt meal will taste just as good as one containing a lot of salt used to do.
When significantly more data are obtained on the catalytic competence of a wide variety of insect P450 enzymes, it will become easier to understand the way in which insects maintain a wide repertoire of P450 genes. If positive selection of a few P450 genes can lead to specialized enzymes in oligopha-gous species (Li et al., 2003), is this an evolutionary dead-end Do the P450 enzymes with ''broad and overlapping'' specificity serve as a perpetual reservoir where some genes, because of their pattern of expression or inducibility or catalytic competence, can then serve as templates for the evolution of a new branch of specialized enzymes Does this ''primordial soup'' perpetuate itself simply by a neutral process of intense gene duplication or are new chemical insults of the environment frequent enough to positively select for a minimal number of ''jack-of-all-trades'' P450 enzymes How do P450 genes get recruited into physiological networks and biosyn-thetic pathways The gap between...
In many long-term studies on carcinogenicity, amaranth has been found to be safe. It is used in food products, such as packaged soup, packaged cake and dessert mix, and canned fruit preserves. In the USA, however, amaranth is no longer in use. The reason for this is the development of tumors in rats fed on a diet containing 3 amaranth.
Recording gel is available at medical supply stores (also from In Vivo Metric). However, if you really want a home brew, heat some sodium alginate (pure seaweed, commonly used to thicken food) and water with low-sodium salt (e.g., Morton Lite Salt) into a thick soup that when cooled can be applied between the electrodes and skin. Note that there is no guarantee that this concoction will be hypoallergenic A milder paste can be made by dissolving 0.9 g of pure NaCl in 100 mL of deionized water. Add 2g of pharmaceutical-grade Karaya gum and agitate in a magnetic stirrer for 2 hours. Add 0.09 g of methyl paraben and 0.045 g of propyl paraben as preservatives and keep in a clean capped container.
From trees each autumn by shaking or beating with long poles, and then stored in pits or granaries. After removing the shell, acorns were pounded into flour in bedrock mortars. The bitter tannins were removed from the flour by leaching with water. Acorn flour was used to make acorn bread or, most often, eaten as acorn mush, a kind of soup. Acorns were also one of a number of nuts, including hickory nuts, collected by Native American farmers in the eastern United States. Here acorns were leached in water, or sometimes boiled in a lye made from wood ash to neutralize the tannins.
Aniseed is an annual herb native to the eastern Mediterranean and was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians as well as the Greeks and Romans. The ripe dried fruit, which contains a volatile oil, is the part of the plant used. It occurs wild but has been grown in herb gardens in Britain since the 15th century, and seeds were carried to North America by the first European settlers. The seeds are strongly licorice-flavored and are used in cooking fish, poultry, and creamy soups. It is used principally to flavor drinks such as ouzo, liqueurs such as Pernod and Ricard, and also in confectionary. As an herbal tea, aniseed has been used medicinally for bloating and colic.
The young leaves of all mustard varieties can be eaten. In Europe and Asia black mustard is cultivated for its young leaves, eaten raw as salad or cooked as a potherb. Brown mustard, known as mustard greens, is also eaten in young tender form as a salad green, or cooked in soups and stews. Mizuna or Japanese mustard (Brassica juncea var. japonica) has a mild, sweet earthy flavour and is a common component of mesclun salad.
The earliest cultivated wheats were hulled forms. Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) and emmer (T. dicoccum) were domesticated from wild einkorn (T. boeoticum) and wild emmer (T. dicoccoides) respectively, in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. The earliest securely dated finds of domesticated einkorn and emmer are at Neolithic (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) sites in Syria, Jordan, and southeast Turkey, dating from 9500 to 9200 14C years ago. Genetic evidence suggests that present-day einkorn and emmer derive from one or two domestications, probably in southeast Turkey. Emmer was the main wheat species grown by early farmers in Europe and the Near East and the only wheat grown in ancient Egypt, where emmer bread and beer were staple foods. Einkorn has always been less important. Because of their ability to thrive on poor soils and to resist fungal diseases, emmer and einkorn are still grown in wet mountainous areas stretching from the Pontic mountains of Turkey to the Carpathian mountains of...
It is worth to mention that perinatal exposure to excess iodine can lead to transient hypothyroidism in the newborn. In Japan, large quantities of iodine-rich seaweed such as kombu (Laminaria japonica) are consumed. The concentration of iodine in serum, urine, and breast milk in addition to TSH, free T4, and TG was measured in 34 infants who were positive at congenital hypothyroidism screening. Based on the concentration of iodine in the urine, 15 infants were diagnosed with hyperthyrotropinemia caused by the excess ingestion of iodine by their mothers during their pregnancy. According to serum iodine concentrations, these infants were classified into group A (over 170 xg l) and group B (under 170 xg l) of serum iodine. During their pregnancies these mothers consumed kombu, other seaweeds, and instant kombu soups containing a high level of iodine. It was calculated that the mothers of group A infants ingested approximately 2,300-3,200 xg of iodine, and the mothers of group B infants...
Flavor enhancers intensify or modify the flavor of food. They have no taste of their own. They include substances such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and various nucleotides. These substances are present in Japanese seaweed (traditionally used for seasoning), mushrooms, tomatoes, peas, meat, and cheese. They are often used in soups, sauces and oriental food. No known adverse effects of flavor enhancers have been reported, except for the case of MSG. Humans have been described to be sensitive to food to which MSG had been added. The symptoms include numbness, general weakness, and heart palpitations (see also Part 2, Chapter 2).
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