Immunological Contact Urticaria

Immunological contact urticaria (ICU) is an immediate type 1 allergic reaction (52). The molecules of a contact urticant react with specific IgE molecules attached to mast-cell membranes. The cutaneous symptoms are elicited by vaso-active substances, mainly histamine, released from mast cells. Other mediators of inflammation may influence the degree of response. Immunological contact urticaria reaction can extend beyond the contact site and generalized urticaria may be accompanied by other...

Contact Urticaria Syndrome

Contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) has been defined as a wheal-and-flare response that develops within 30 to 60 min after exposure of the skin to certain agents (52,53). Symptoms of immediate contact reactions can be classified according to their morphology and severity Itching, tingling, and burning with erythema is the weakest type of immediate contact reaction. Local wheal and flare with tingling and itching represents the prototype reaction of contact urticaria. Generalized urticaria after...

Seborrheic Dermatitis Dandruff

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are often mentioned together. Dandruff is the mildest manifestation of seborrheic dermatitis and it cannot be separated from seborrheic dermatitis. Therefore, what is mentioned in the literature for seborrheic dermatitis is also true for dandruff and vice versa. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by inflammation and desquamation in areas with a rich supply of sebaceous glands, namely, the scalp, face, and...

Mechanisms Of Contact Urticaria

CUS can be described in two broad categories nonimmunological contact urticaria (NICU) and immunological contact urticaria (ICU). The former does not require presensitization of the patient's immune system to an allergen, whereas the latter does. There are, however, contact urticaria reactions of unknown mechanism, and these are unclassified. Nonimmunological Contact Urticaria s NICU is the most frequent immediate contact reaction (4) and occurs, without ja prior sensitization, in most exposed...

Androgenetic Alopecia

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss in humans. Its prevalence in any population has not been accurately studied, but it occurs much more often in Caucasians than in other races (6). Androgenetic alopecia affects approximately 50 of men over 40 years of age and may also affect just as many women (7). It occurs in both men and women as a result of genetic and hormonal factors. Androgenetic alopecia appears to be autosomal dominant with gene expression apparently determined...

Diffuse Alopecia

Patients afflicted with diffuse alopecia typically complain of hair loss all over the scalp not just in the areas usually seen in androgenetic alopecia. However, the differential diagnosis of diffuse alopecia versus androgenetic alopecia, particularly in females, can be difficult because of the similar presentation, and biopsy and histological assessment may be required to confirm the diagnosis. The course of the diffuse alopecia can be continuous or episodic. Diffuse alopecia may present as...

Arch Derm Res 1996 288 103-107

Tween percutaneous absorption and transepidermal water loss according to anatomic site in man. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1986 37 351-357. 157. Tupker RA, Coenraads P-J, Pinnagoda J, Nater JP. Baseline transepidermal water loss TEWL as a prediction of susceptibility to sodium lauryl sulphate. Contact Derm 1989 20 265-269. 158. Agner T. Basal transepidermal water loss, skin thickness, skin blood flow and skin colour in relation to sodium-lauryl-sulphate-induced irritation in normal skin. Contact Derm...

Nonimmunological Contact Urticaria

Nonimmunological contact urticaria NICU is the most common form and occurs without previous exposure in most individuals. The reaction remains localized and does not cause systemic symptoms to spread to become generalized urticaria. Typically, the strength of this type of contact urticaria reaction varies from erythema to a generalized urticarial response, depending on the concentration, skin site, and substance. The mechanism of nonimmunological contact urti- caria has not been delineated, but...

Acne And Pseudofolliculitis Treatment

Salicylic acid is listed among active products to treat acne 26,27 . However, clearcut evidence for a significant benefit at low concentration in well-controlled experimental and clinical trials is scanty. Similarly, medium concentrations of AHAs, such as glycolic acid, lactic acid, and mandelic acid, are employed twice daily to improve mild acne 12 . Such a treatment awaits validation by independent controlled studies. In our experience, the lower AHA concentrations present in some cosmetic...