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Alloy A Alloy A Alloy B Alloy B

Isotonic buffer Synthetic sweat Isotonic buffer Synthetic sweat

Figure 8 Distribution of nickel in epidermis and dermis after 24 h occluded application of two nickel disks made from alloy A and alloy B. Recipient mediums were isotonic phosphate buffer and synthetic sweat (skin from donor A). Statistics: 2-sample t test comparing mean skin compartment distribution of nickel after application of alloy B and alloy A. Comparison for isotonic phosphate buffer and synthetic sweat as recipient medium, respectively. n.s., no significance; *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001. (Modified from Fullerton Ref. 23.)

Alloy A Alloy A Alloy B Alloy B

Isotonic buffer Synthetic sweat Isotonic buffer Synthetic sweat

Figure 8 Distribution of nickel in epidermis and dermis after 24 h occluded application of two nickel disks made from alloy A and alloy B. Recipient mediums were isotonic phosphate buffer and synthetic sweat (skin from donor A). Statistics: 2-sample t test comparing mean skin compartment distribution of nickel after application of alloy B and alloy A. Comparison for isotonic phosphate buffer and synthetic sweat as recipient medium, respectively. n.s., no significance; *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001. (Modified from Fullerton Ref. 23.)

In vivo patch testing of nickel-sensitive patients was performed using nickel disks made of metal alloy A and Carbopol® barrier gel systems with and without added EDTA (gel type A and B). Test preparations and nickel disks were removed 1 day postapplication and the sites evaluated. Reduction in positive test reactions was highly significant.

Zhai (5) developed an in vivo method in human skin to measure the effectiveness of skin protective creams against dye indicator solutions: methylene blue ij in water and oil red O in ethanol, which are representative of model hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Solutions of 5% methylene blue and 5% oil red O | were applied to untreated and protective cream pretreated skin with the aid of aluminum occlusive chambers, for 0 h and 4 h. At the end of the application time, the materials were removed, and consecutive skin surface biopsies (SSB) were obtained. The amount of dye penetrating into each strip was determined

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