Nonimmunological Contact Urticaria

Nonimmunological contact urticaria (NICU) is the most common form and occurs without previous exposure in most individuals. The reaction remains localized and does not cause systemic symptoms to spread to become generalized urticaria. Typically, the strength of this type of contact urticaria reaction varies from erythema to a generalized urticarial response, depending on the concentration, skin site, and substance. The mechanism of nonimmunological contact urti- | caria has not been delineated, but a direct influence on dermal vessel walls or a £ nonantibody-mediated release of histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sub- ja stance P, other inflammatory mediators, or different combinations of these media- < tors represents possible mechanisms (56). The most potent and best studied sub- 4 stances producing nonimmunological contact urticaria are benzoic acid, cinnamic

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