Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Antecedents to Cultivation Some Case Studies

The aborigines generally preferred roots and fruits, when they could be found, as these usually involved little or no preparation, unlike nuts and seeds. In addition, aboriginal people living in desert regions also ate succulents. Some species of bushes in Australia retain their berries even after they have matured and dried out these represented another important resource particularly during the most arid periods when little else was available. from the stomachs of both terrestrial and marine mammals may have once played some part in people's diet and seaweed was also consumed. In such regions the summers are very brief and there is therefore only a short period when the gathering of most other plant foods is possible. In high latitudes today bushes belonging to the heather family such as crowberries, bilberries, and cowberries provide edible fruits that represent an important source of vitamin C, as does the creeping willow, Salix arctica. The leaves of this plant, which contain...

Site selection criteria

The site area should have good vegetation cover if possible. Trees and plants provide shade, help to prevent soil erosion, allow recharge of the groundwater supplies and help in reducing dust. It may sometimes be necessary, however, to destroy poisonous trees or plants, for example where populations are accustomed to collecting berries or mushrooms.

The Fruits of Temperate Eurasia

Temperate Eurasia extends from Europe to China across the Old World and is home to dozens of temperate fruit species, including the apple. The majority of these originated in temperate Asia, some in the western-central part, some in the eastern part, especially China. Many of them originated early, but some originated quite late and continue to appear. Several berries were domesticated recently in Europe and the most recent berry crop, the kiwifruit, was domesticated in the second half of the 20 th century.

Raspberry Rubus idaeus and Blackberry R ulmifolius Rosaceae

These berries are often called brambles because of their growth habit (Ourecky 1975). Their taxonomy is extremely complex and the two names used here are simply convenient some bramble students use the subgeneric names Idaeoatus (raspberries) and Eubatus (blackberries) instead of specific names, given the ease with which species in each group hybridize. Both subgenera are temperate and circumpolar. The raspberries were first cultivated in Europe in the 1500s, but the earliest named cultivars only appeared in the 1800s in both Europe and North America (Ourecky 1975 Jennings 1995). By this time both European and North American 'species' were being cultivated, hybridized, and selected. The blackberries appear to have been cultivated in Europe only a few years before they were cultivated in North America a European cultivar was introduced into North America in 1850. Soon thereafter, it 'escaped' and hybridized with American blackberries, resulting in new variation that was selected...

The Fruits of North America and Mesoamerica

Vavilov (1992), and Harlan (1995) all agreed that Mesoamerica was an important center of crop origin. In contrast, North America contributed relatively little to the world crop repertoire, the most important being the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Compositae). In the last two centuries, North American berries have become important crops that are now grown in Eurasia and South America.

Passionfruit Passiflora edulis Passifloraceae

There are 370 species of passionfruit, 350 in the Americas and 20 in Asia and Australia (IBPGR 1986). The most important is P. edulis, although other species are locally important in tropical America. All are vines that produce berries, ranging in size from 1 to 8 inches (2 to 20 cm) in diameter. The passionfruit considered here come in two forms, the purple (f. edulis) and the yellow (f. flavicarpa). Both forms have aromatic, tart, delightfully flavored pulp around the seeds. The purple edulis is slightly sweeter and less tropical, having originated in southern Brazil, and has been spread more widely around the world, with Hawaii, Australia, and South Africa mentioned as important production areas (IBPGR 1986). The yellow flavicarpa is less sweet. It is also larger than the purple, more tropical, and currently more important in Brazil for juice and flavorings, which are now being exported to Europe, North America, and Japan.

Gathering Food from the Wild

It is impossible to list and discuss here the huge number of wild and weedy plants traditionally collected and consumed. This chapter covers some of the important species throughout the world, with a special emphasis on edible greens. These are mostly collected in the spring, when the leaves, stems, and buds of wild plants are softer and less bitter. There is little archaeological evidence relating to edible greens compared to nuts and seeds, which are more likely to survive. However, evidence from the diet of primates suggests that consumption of young leaves has always been a feature of the diet of modern humans and our hominid ancestors. Nuts, berries, and grains, also gathered from the wild both before and after domestication, are discussed in separate chapters.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

A diet of meats, eggs, cheese, prunes, cranberries, plums, and whole grains can increase the acidity of the urine. Foods not allowed on this diet include carbonated beverages, anything containing baking soda or powder, fruits other than those previously stated, all vegetables except corn and lentils, and milk and milk products. The action of some medications used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) is diminished by acidic urine (nitrofurantoin) thus, review prescriptions before giving patients this diet.

Poke root Phytolacca decandra Phytolaccaceae

This is regarded as one of the most important of indigenous North American plants, with the plant being used as a dye and the dried root used in many traditional herbal remedies. It is now also common in the Mediterranean region. The young shoots are used as a good substitute for asparagus, and poultry are very happy to eat the berries (hence the common name pigeon berry), although eating too many can give their flesh an unpleasant flavor. In Portugal the juice of the berries was used to color port wines, but this was discontinued as it affected the flavor. As the plant matures the whole plant becomes poisonous.

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Most goiters are classified as simple (or nontoxic). They result from any enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not caused by an inflammation or a neoplasm. Simple goiters can be classified as sporadic or endemic and are not associated initially with either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Sporadic goiters occur after a person eats certain foods (peaches, strawberries, radishes, spinach, peas, cabbage, soybeans, or peanuts) or takes certain medications (iodides, lithium, propylthiouracil) that decrease thyroxine (T4). Endemic goiters, in contrast, occur because of the patient's geographic location in areas where the soil is depleted of iodine. Endemic goiter that results from soil deficiencies is most likely to occur during autumn and winter.

Juniper Juniperus communis Cupressaceae

Juniper is native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America. The fleshy fruits are used to flavor drinks, particularly gin, and as a spice. The best quality fruits come from Italy, but juniper berries are also exported from the former Yugoslavia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. The fruits have been used to adulterate black peppercorns and as a substitute for pepper. Roasted and ground, they were used in parts of Sweden instead of coffee. They were used medicinally in Phara-onic Egypt and by the Greeks and Arabs.

Pepper Piper nigrum Piperaceae

Pepper was well known to the Greeks and Romans. Hippocrates and Aristotle mentioned it about 400 bc. Aristotle's pupil Theophrastus, the Father of Botany, distinguished black pepper from the more valuable long pepper, while Dioscorides was the first to mention white pepper. Pliny noted that long pepper was frequently adulterated with Alexandrian mustard, and black pepper with juniper berries. After the discovery of the monsoons in 40 ad, a regular sea trade between Rome and India was established with pepper as a staple commodity. Although pepper thus became more widely available, it remained valuable. For example, the tribute paid to prevent Alaric the Goth from sacking Rome in 408 ad included three thousand pounds of pepper. In medieval Europe, peppercorns were bequeathed in wills and were accepted currency for various transactions (as in peppercorn rent, then a payment of value not, as now, a nominal sum).

Deadly nightshade Belladonna Atropa belladonna Solanaceae

The perennial plant belladonna grows to a height of 3-4 feet (0.9-1.2 m). It has ovate leaves, drooping bell-shaped purple flowers, and shiny black berries. The whole plant has psychoactive and highly toxic properties, and ingestion of it can be fatal. It is native to Europe, but is also found in North Africa and Asia and has escaped from cultivation in other regions including the United States. It contains the psychoactive tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine, atropine, and scopolamine. Its effects include hallucinations, ecstasy, and severe disorientation.

Social Cultural And Economic Context Of The Disaster

In addition to the health concerns and other societal strains raised by the accident and the response measures that were put in place, the disaster had serious socioeconomic consequences. In Belarus, the most seriously affected of the three adjacent republics, 38,000 square kilometers, or 18 of the land area of this republic, was more or less severely contaminated, especially by radioactive cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years. In this republic, 300,000 hectares of farmland were taken out of production for this reason. Some 1 million hectares of the forests were contaminated to varying degrees 1 . The population was advised not to eat mushrooms or berries from these forests, thereby depriving them of an otherwise welcome dietary supplement and favorite pastime. In addition to losses in agricultural production, the market for food products from the region was completely lost, as was tourism, another major source of income in some districts. The affected parts of Ukraine and...

Allspice Pimenta dioica Myrtaceae

The Mayas of Central America reputedly used allspice in embalming bodies of important people. Columbus may have encountered allspice on his first voyage, in 1492, undertaken to bring back spices for Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. The Journal of that voyage records that he showed black pepper (Piper nigrum) to natives of Cuba, and they recognised it . . . and by signs told him that in the neighborhood there was much of it. Dried allspice berries are about the same size as, and superficially resemble, black peppercorns. Possibly for this reason, the Spaniards called allspice pimienta, which is their word for black pepper. This confusion was perpetuated in Linnaeus' generic name Pimenta and in the English common names of pimenta and Jamaica pepper. Today allspice is included as one of the five peppers in Five Pepper blends. Allspice is thought to have reached England by 1601. Philip Miller, famed for his Gardeners' Dictionary, grew it in a stove house in the 1730s. Linnaeus gave the...

St Johns wort Rose of Sharon Hypericum Clusiaceae

Nearly four hundred species of Hypericum occur in the northern temperate region, ranging from annuals to shrubs. A few Mediterranean species such as H. calycinum and H. olympicum have been cultivated since 1675, originally for medicinal properties, and the North American H. pro-lificum reached Europe about the same time. More important in gardens for ornamental berries are several related shrubby species from the Far East, notably the Himalayan H. hookerianum (1853), H. beanii, H. forrestii, and H. pseudohenryi, all introduced from western China between 1904 and 1908. These species have also produced some fine garden hybrids, notably 'Hidcote' and 'Rowallane.'

Cotoneaster Cotoneaster Rosaceae

There are over two hundred species of Cotoneaster in Europe and Asia east to China. Several European species have been cultivated since the 16th century for their flowers, berries, and, in some cases, foliage that turns purplish-red in autumn. The influx of species from eastern Asia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries greatly enriched the range available, and also resulted in the raising of some fine hybrids. Notable among these are C. frigidus, and C. henryanus, C. salicifolius, and C. horizontalis, all from western China.

Pokeweed Phytolacca americana Phytolaccaceae

This plant is also known as pokeberry, scoke, pigeon berry, coakum, inkberry, and many others. It is a perennial that grows from a large, poisonous root to between 3 to 10 feet tall. The leaves are 5 to 12 inches long, and it has white flowers growing in terminal racemes, each floret having 4 to 5 sepals. These develop into dark purple, ten-ribbed berries. They are a favorite food for birds (hence known as pigeon berry) but are poisonous to humans.

Kosters curse Clidemia hirta Melastomataceae

Koster's curse is named for the man believed to have introduced the noxious plant to Fiji, where it is a serious pest. It is an erect, hairy, densely-branched shrub up to 16 feet (5 m) tall, with ovate to oblong-ovate leaves 1.5-6 inches (4-15 cm) long, and white or pinkish flower axillary (growing between the leaf and stem) clusters that produce blue-black berries containing over 100 seeds. A mature plant can produce 500 to 1,000 of these berries each year. It is native to the Caribbean and tropical South and Central America. Once established, it forms dense thickets and suppresses most ground vegetation even small patches are virtually impossible to eradicate. It is now an invasive pest on islands such as Fiji, Seychelles, Hawaii, Java, Samoa, and India and East Africa. The seeds are dispersed by birds and also form a very large soil seedbank. In Hawaii, seeds are locally spread by birds and feral pigs, with long-distance dispersal carried out by humans. According to Binggeli, Hall,...

Strawberry guava Purple guava Cattley guava Psidium cattleianum Myrtaceae

The strawberry guava is a shrub or small tree, 6-18 feet (2-6 m), with a smooth trunk and dark green, aromatic, leathery leaves. The white flowers produce red to purplish-red, occasionally yellow, berries that can be eaten fresh or made into jams or other preserves. It is native to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, from Espirito Santo south to northern Uruguay, but is widely cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. It is one of the most serious invaders of montane tropical rainforest (Cronk and Fuller 1995) in a number of island ecosystems, including Hawaii, Fiji, Tahiti and the Cook Islands (Rarotonga and Mangaia), as well as R union and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. In Hawaii it is found in all the main islands and is thought to have been introduced there for its fruit on the voyage of the Blonde in 1835 it often forms dense monotypic thickets in

White sage Lantana camara Verbenaceae

White sage is one of the most widely recognized shrubs of tropical and subtropical regions. It is a highly variable shrub, with dense axillary heads of flowers that open from the outside inwards, with yellow or sometimes orange corollas, turning pink, red, orange, rarely white, purple or blue. The fruits are fleshy drupes, 0.1 to 0.2 inches (3 to 6 mm) in diameter, containing one to two seeds, and mature rapidly, changing from dark green to purple or black. The seeds are dispersed by birds. It is native to Central and South America and the West Indies, although its exact native distribution is difficult to determine, as non-native forms have been introduced. It has been cultivated for over 300 years with numerous cultivars and hybrids having been produced, and it is widely introduced as an ornamental in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it has also been used for hedges and erosion control. White sage has escaped and become a weed or naturalized and invasive, especially in...

Cranberry and Other Herbal Therapies for Urinary Tract Infections

Because UTIs in people with MS may lead to serious complications, including worsening of neurologic difficulties, cranberry juice should not be used to treat infections. On the other hand, for people interested in an herbal approach, it may be reasonable to attempt to prevent infections using cranberry juice. The exact doses that should be used have not been established. Doses sometimes recommended for prevention are 1 to 10 ounces of juice daily. Six capsules of dried powder or 1.5 ounces of frozen or fresh cranberries may be equivalent to 3 ounces of juice. The use of frozen or fresh cranberries may not be possible because of the sour taste of the berries. Cranberry juice cocktail is 26 to 33 percent juice.

Current levels of incidence

Contamination of fresh produce, especially fruit, vegetables, salads and other foods consumed raw or lightly cooked, with viable (oo)cysts has been responsible for several outbreaks of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis (Tables 17.2-17.4). Other food types known to have been contaminated or epi-demiologically associated with outbreaks include Christmas pudding, home-canned salmon, chicken salad, sandwiches, fruit salad, ice, raw sliced vegetables, cold pressed (non-alcoholic) apple cider, raspberries, noodle salad, basil pesto pasta salad and mesclun lettuce (Tables 17.2-17.4). Our knowledge of incidence is scarce owing to the lack of a reproducible, sensitive detection method (see Table 17.5). Infectious (oo)cysts can be transmitted to a susceptible host via any faecally contaminated matrix, including water, aerosol, food and transport hosts. Food products can became contaminated with (oo)cysts in a variety of ways, and it is likely that more than one route may be...

Specific History

Foods Fish, shellfish (especially oysters and mussels), meats (especially pork and mutton), cheeses that are mold-containing, strawberries, citrus fruits, nuts, seeds, peanuts, tomatoes, chocolate, dairy products (especially milk), egg whites. Foods Lobster, crayfish, scombroid fish (usually old or improperly processed), strawberries, yeast and yeast-containing cheeses, spinach, chicken livers, red wines, egg whites, tomatoes, tonic water (quinine content).


Mythology generated the Greek name for the plant Daphne. Apollo was said to have relentlessly pursued the unwilling nymph Daphne until merciful Gods turned her into a laurel tree. At the Olympic Games, founded ca. 2775 b.p., champions were crowned with laurels. Our Baccalaureate means nothing more than laurel berries (more appropriately drupes), rather suggestive