Protective Factors

The notion of protective factors is of particular appeal because of its implications for prevention and minimisation of morbidity. The problem is that very little research has been done in the area. Most of the protective factors are, in fact, the absence of risk factors such as past psychiatric history or the experience of a negative childhood environment. Attempts to delineate protective factors have proven elusive. One area that has attracted a substantial body of investigation is that of...

Psychiatric Disorders Related To Trauma And Disaster

We are only in the infancy of understanding why some people exposed to traumatic events develop post-traumatic psychopathology and some people do not (for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD, see 26). Post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are most often seen in those directly exposed to the threat to life and the horror of a traumatic event. The greater the ''dose'' of traumatic stressors, the more likely an individual or group is to develop high rates of psychiatric morbidity. Certain groups,...

Ptsd

The rates of PTSD are very dependent on the sampling used in a study as well as the severity and nature of the event. Therefore, each new disaster should be considered as a novel event and predictions about the rates of morbidity should depend on careful consideration of which group of victims are being considered as well as the time that has elapsed following the disaster. The Buffalo Creek disaster (dam break), which occurred in 1972, is one of the best studied disasters a 59 PTSD lifetime...

Biological Risk Factors Contributing To Ptsd

If there is a predisposing biology of PTSD, it appears to comprise a set of conditions that impede an individual's ability to contain the stress response. According to the cascade described above, trauma exposure will further the development of these conditions and consequences, resulting in a progressive sensitization to subsequent trauma exposures. It is conceivable that any one of a number of biological conditions could have the effect of stimulating or sustaining heightened levels of...

Specific Mechanisms Potentially Contributing To The Pathophysiology Of Ptsd

While the precise mechanisms whereby even well-established biological risk factors may influence a person's acute response to trauma have not yet been fully elaborated, it is important to consider the possibilities. With respect to the neuroendocrine alterations, for example, since cortisol inhibits its own release through negative feedback at the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus, lower circulating cortisol levels may disrupt (or delay) the process of physiological stress recovery by...

Psychological Debriefing

Over the last 20 years, it has become customary and then almost mandatory to apply early intervention after disasters and other traumatic events, in the hope of accelerating the resolution of trauma-associated symptoms. Early interventions are intuitively appealing and appear to be a response to a perceived need, but whether or not they are useful remains unclear. The procedure of choice has become psychological debriefing, in which the subject is encouraged to talk about the trauma in...

References

Galea S., Ahern J., Resnick H., Kilpatrick D., Bucuvalas M., Gold J., et al. 2002 Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks. N Engl J Med, 346 982-987. 2. Galea S., Boscarino J., Resnik H., Vlahov D. in press Mental health in New York City after the September 11 terrorist attacks results from two population surveys. In R.W. Manderscheid, M.J. Henderson Eds. , Mental Health, United States, 2002. US Government Print Office, Washington, DC. 3. Kessler R.C., Sonnega A., Bromet...

Treatingacute Stress Disorders An Evaluation Of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Andsupportive Counseling Technique.

Crocq L. 1997 The emotional consequences of war 50 years on. A psychiatric perspective. In L. Hunt, M. Marshall, C. Rowlings Eds. , Past Trauma in Late Life, pp. 39-48. Kingsley, London. 2. Cohen R. 2002 Mental health services for victims of disasters. World Psychiatry, 1 149-152. 3. Lopez-Ibor J.J. 2002 The psycho patho logy of disasters. Presented at the 12th World Congress of Psychiatry, Yokohama, August 24-29. 4. Benyakar M., Kutz I., Dasberg H., Stern M. 1989 The collapse of a structure...