David Mcdowell

Hallucinogens consist of a disparate group of psychoactive substances, and include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA), hallucinogens, ketamine, and marijuana. They differ in terms of administration, mechanism of action, and effect. In many cases, they are used by groups of younger people and are taken in various combinations with each other and other classes of substances, usually in social settings (often at "raves" [see Bellis, Hale, Bennett, Chaudry, & Kilfoyle, 2000] or other parties). At some of these events, a substantial majority of rave participants are using MDMA, ketamine, gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GHB), or other drugs, such as marijuana and D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). In addition, at times inhalants are used at these events (Lee & McDowell, 2003; McDowell & Kleber, 1994; Winstock, Griffiths, & Stewart, 2001). Polysubstance might be considered the norm at such events, with over 80% of participants using more than one substance (Boys, Lenton, & Norcross, 1997; Winstock et al., 2001). Although the demographics and settings of use have changed, these substances remain significant clinical problems.

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