Mechanism of Action

Ketamine is chemically similar to PCP but has important differences (Jansen, 1990). Ketamine binds to the NMDA receptor complex on the same site as PCP, located inside the calcium channel. It works by inhibiting several of the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters (Cotman & Monaghan, 1987; Hampton et al., 1982). Ketamine works globally, affecting numerous neurotransmitter systems, but its action, as an NMDA antagonist, is likely the cause of its schizotypal and dissociative symptoms. NMDA blockade causes an increase in dopamine release in the midbrain and prefrontal cortex as well

(Bubser Keseberg, Notz, & Griffiths, 1992), and this is likely the cause of its ability to reinforce and cause dependence. Furthermore, persisting memory deficits have been demonstrated (Curran & Monaghan, 2001).

Do Not Panic

Do Not Panic

This guide Don't Panic has tips and additional information on what you should do when you are experiencing an anxiety or panic attack. With so much going on in the world today with taking care of your family, working full time, dealing with office politics and other things, you could experience a serious meltdown. All of these things could at one point cause you to stress out and snap.

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